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Seminar Presentation On Silent Sound Technology (An End To Noisy Communication) | Seminar Report On Silent Sound Technology (An End To Noisy Communication)



SILENT SOUND TECHNOLOGY

(AN END TO NOISY COMMUNICATION)



A SEMINAR PRESENTATION



By

#### ####### #####

CS/12/###



SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE

FACULTY OF NATURAL SCIENCE

MADONNA UNIVERSITY, ELELE CAMPUS,

RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA.



IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (B.Sc.) DEGREE IN COMPUTER SCIENCE



SUPERVISED BY: MR IKECHUKWU UDEGBE 





DECEMBER, 2015



DECLARATION

This is to certify that ALFA ENEMONA MOSES with registration number CS/12/091 in the department of computer science carried out this research on SILENT SOUND TECHNOLOGY in partial Fulfilment of the requirement for the Award of Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) degree in Computer Science.


ALFA ENEMONA MOSES DATE

(NAME OF STUDENT)



MR. IKECHUKWU UDEGBE DATE

(SUPERVISOR)



MRS EBERENDU OGU C DATE

(A/O HEAD OF DEPARTMENT)











DEDICATION

I dedicate this work to Almighty God especially for the gift of life He granted to me during the period of this research.






ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I am most grateful to God the creator whose will we strive to keep. My lecturers and my supervisor Mr Ikechukwu Udegbe, whose tremendous and fantastic lectures and discussions helped immensely towards the commencement and completion of this study. 

I am also grateful to the acting head of department (HOD) Mrs Eberendu Ogu .C and all the academic staff of the department of Computer Science. 

Finally, my gratitude is extended to my parents, Elder & Mrs John O. Alfa for the moral and financial support which was decisive to the successful completion of this study.






CONTENTS


COVER PAGE............................................................................................................................. I

DECLEARATION........................................................................................................................II

DEDICATION.............................................................................................................................III

ACKNOWLEGDEMENT............................................................................................................IV

TABLE OF CONTENT ...............................................................................................................V

ABSTRACT.................................................................................................................................VII

CHAPTER 1. 1

INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................... 1

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY........................................................................................ 1

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT………………………………………………………………...…2

1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY.........................................................................2

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY................................................................................................. 2

1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY.. ......................................................................................................2

1.6 LIMITATION OF STUDY...................................................................................................... 3

1.7 GLOSSARY.. ...........................................................................................................................3

1.8 ORGANISATION OF CHAPTERS…………………………………………………………4

CHAPTER 2.................................................................................................................................. 3

LITERATURE REVIEW............................................................................................................. 5

2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND........................................................................................... 5

2.2 ORIGINATION.. ....................................................................................................................6

CHAPTER 3................................................................................................................................. 7

FINDINGS..................................................................................................................................... 7

3.1 SILENT SOUND TECHNOLOGY........................................................................................ 7

3.2 METHODS.............................................................................................................................. 8

3.3 ELECTROMYOGRAPHY.. ...................................................................................................8

3.4 WORKING OF ELECTROMYOGRAPHY.. .........................................................................10

3.5 IMAGE PROCESSING.. .........................................................................................................13

3.6 FLOWCHART OF DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING...........................................................11

3.7 FEATURES OF SILENT SOUND TECHNOLOGY.. ............................................................14

3.8 APPLICATION AREAS...........................................................................................................14

3.9 ADVANTAGES OF SILENT SOUND TECHNOLOGY....................................................... 15

3.10 DISADVANTAGES. ..............................................................................................................15

3.11 RESEARCH AND FUTURE PROSPECT…………………………………………………..15

CHAPTER 4.................................................................................................................................... 16

4.1 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION.......................................................................................... 16

4.2 REFERENCE…………….....………………………………………………………………….17





ABSTRACT

The Silent sound technology is an amazing solution for those who had lost their voice but wish to communicate over the phone. This technology basically allows people to make calls without producing sounds. It is developed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. This technology basically detect every lip movement and internally converts the electrical pulses into sounds signals and sends them neglecting all other surrounding noise. This report outlines the history associated with this technology presenting the method or techniques used in achieving silent sounds, which are electromyography and Image processing. This research reviews the underlined futures of the technology that immediately transforms into the language of the user's choice but, for the languages like Chinese different tones can hold many different meanings. This technology basically works with 99% efficiency, and can be seen in the market in another 5-10 years and will be used in every day’s technology.



CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION


1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

You are in a movie theatre or noisy restaurant or a bus etc. where there is a lot of noise around it is big issue while talking on a mobile phone. But in the future this problem is eliminated with ”silent sounds”, a new technology unveiled at the CeBIT fair on Tuesday that transforms lip movements into a computer-generated voice for the listener at the other end of the phone. It is a technology that helps you to transmit information without using your vocal cords. This technology aims to notice lip movements & transform them into a computer generated sound that can be transmitted over a phone. Hence the person on other end of phone receives the information in audio. 

In the 2010 CeBIT's "future park", a concept "Silent Sound" Technology demonstrated which aims to notice every movement of the lips and transform them into sounds, which could help people who lose voices to speak, and allow people to make silent calls without bothering others. The device, developed by the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), uses electromyography, monitoring tiny muscular movements that occur when we speak and converting them into electrical pulses that can then be turned into speech, without a sound uttered. Silent Sound’ technology aims to notice every movements of the lips and transform them into sounds, which could help people who lose voices to speak, and allow people to make silent calls without bothering others. Rather than making any sounds, your handset would decipher the movements your mouth makes by measuring muscle activity, then convert this into speech that the person on the other end of the call can hear. So, basically, it reads your lips.



1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT

Embarrassing situation such as

1. A person answering his silent, but vibrating cell phone in a meeting, lecture or performance, and whispering loudly, “I can’t talk to you right now”.

2. In the case of an urgent call, apologetically rushing out of the room in order to answer or call the person back.

3. Need to answer and understand calls which is in a different language



1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

The aims and objectives of this research work are as follows:

Ø AIM 
To study how to transmit information without using your vocal cords. 

Ø OBJECTIVES 
To find out solutions for those who had lost their voice but wish to speak over phone. 
This technology aims to notice lip movements & transform them into a computer generated sound that can be transmitted over a phone. Hence the person on other end of phone receives the information in audio. 
To study ways we can tell confidential information over phone without others hearing it. 

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

This research work will reveal to the reader how this technology is used to notice lip movements & transform them into a computer generated sound that can be transmitted over a phone. Hence person on other end of phone receives the information in audio


1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY

The scope of this study involves the working principal of silent sound technology, its components and how it is used to solve problems.

1.6 LIMITATION OF STUDY

The fundamental problems encountered in the success of this study constitute inadequate and insufficient resources to conduct the research, fluctuating network, and time consumption



1.7 GLOSSARY

ELECTROMYOGRAPHY (EMG): It is a technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscle. 

SILENCE: The absence of sound

TECHNOLOGY: The discipline dealing with the art or science of applying scientific knowledge to practical problem

INFORMATION: A collection of facts from which conclusion may be drawn / A processed data can also be called an information

AUDIO: The audible part of a transmitted signal

TRANSMIT: This serves as a medium for transmission






1.8 ORGANIZATION OF CHAPTERS

For systematic presentation, this work is planned in four chapters. Each chapter deals with a particular aspect or segment of the work.


CHAPTER ONE starts by introducing the topic, which gives an insight and in-depth analysis of the seminar work, which was closely followed by the objectives of the topic, which gave rise to the significance of the topic, followed by the limitation, scope and crowned by the organization of the topic.



CHAPTER TWO deals with the literature review, historical background and origination of the topic silent sound technology.



CHAPTER THREE focuses on the discussion of the topic, which was closely followed by what is findings are involved in silent sound technology also illustrating the application areas of the research in modern technology. Methods and features of silent sound technology and crowned with advantages and disadvantages of the research 



CHAPTER FOUR summarizes the topic, enumerate conclusion and proffers recommendation for the topic and the way forward.






CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW


2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Silent Sound technology is a technology that helps you to transmit information without using your vocal cords. Silent Sound technology is developed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany. This technology uses electromyography. It monitors tiny muscular movements that occur when we speak and converting them into electrical pulses that can then be turned into speech, without a sound uttered. (Kendra, 1995) It is very useful for those people who can’t speak.

By using this technology they can easily interact with the other persons. The benefit of this technology is that the listener can hear voice clearly. This technology aims to notice lip movements & transform them into a computer generated sound that can be transmitted over a phone. Hence person on other end of phone receive the information in audio. The idea of interpreting silent speech electronically or with a computer has been around for a long time, and was popularized in the 1968 Stanley Kubrick science-fiction film ‘‘2001-A Space Odyssey.” (Brumberg, 2010)

In the 2010 CeBIT's "future park", a concept (Schultz, 2010) "Silent Sound" Technology demonstrated which aims to notice every movement of the lips and transform them into sounds, which could help people who lose voices to speak, and allow people to make silent calls without bothering others. Rather than making any sounds, your handset would decipher the movements your mouth makes by measuring muscle activity, then convert this into speech that the person on the other end of the call can hear. So, basically, it reads your lips. Thus people can talk on their cell phones at the crowded place without getting disturbed as show in Figure 2.1 

Common people talking at same place without disturbance

FIG2.1 Common people talking at same place without disturbance

“We currently use electrodes which are glued to the skin. In the future, such electrodes might for example by incorporated into cell phones,” said (Schultz, 2010) from the KIT. The technology opens up a host of applications, from helping people who have lost their voice due to illness or accident. The technology can also turn you into an instant polyglot. Because the electrical pulses are universal, they can be immediately transformed into the language of the user’s choice. “Native speakers can silently utter a sentence in their language, and the receivers hear the translated sentence in their language. It appears as if the native speaker produced speech in a foreign language,” said Schultz


2.2 ORIGINATION



Humans are capable of producing and understanding whisperer speech in quiet environments at remarkably low signal levels. (Jorgensen C, 2010) Most people can also understand a few unspoken words by lip-reading The idea of interpreting silent speech electronically or with a computer has been around for a long time, and was popularized in the 1968 Stanley Kubrick science-fiction film ‘‘2001 – A Space Odyssey ” A major focal point was the DARPA Advanced Speech Encoding Program (ASE ) of the early 2000’s, which funded research on low bit rate speech synthesis ‘‘with acceptable intelligibility, quality , and aural speaker recognisability in acoustically harsh environments”.





CHAPTER 3

FINDINGS


3.1 SILENT SOUND TECHNOLOGY

It is a technology that helps you to transmit information without using your vocal cords. This technology aims to notice lip movements & transform them into a computer generated sound that can be transmitted over a phone. Hence person on other end of phone receives the information in audio.

Silent Speech technology enables speech communication to take place when an audible acoustic signal is unavailable. By acquiring sensor data from elements of the human speech production process – from the articulators, their neural pathways, or the brain itself – it produces a digital representation of speech which can be synthesized directly, interpreted as data, or routed into a communications network

flowchart of silent sound technology


Fig 3.1 FLOWCHART OF SILENT SOUND TECHNOLOGY 

3.2 METHODS

Silent Sound Technology is processed through some ways or methods. They are – 

1. Electromyography (EMG)

2. Image Processing
3.3 Electromyography

Electromyographic sensors attached to the face.


FIG 3.3 Electromyographic sensors attached to the face.



The Silent Sound Technology uses electromyography, monitoring tiny muscular movements that occur when we speak. Monitored signals are converted into electrical pulses that can then be turned into speech, without a sound uttered. When we generally speak aloud, air passes through larynx & the tongue. Words are produced using articulator muscle in the mouth & jaw region. Recently it is proved that when we are about to speak due to reflex action of muscles the articulate muscle becomes active irrespective of whether air is passed through them or not. Even by saying words without producing sound weak electric currents are sent from brain to speech muscles. This phenomenon is called ELECTROMYOGRAPHS

Electromyography (EMG) is a technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. 

An electromyography detects the electrical potential generated by muscle cells, when these cells are electrically or neurologically activated. Electromyographic sensors attached to the face records the electric signals produced by the facial muscles, compare them with pre-recorded signal pattern of spoken words When there is a match that sound is transmitted on to the other end of the line and person at the other end listen to the Spoken words the transducers involved converts the pulses into electric signals. The electrical source is the muscle membrane potential of about -90 mV.[6] Measured EMG potentials range between less than 50 μV and up to 20 to 30 mV, depending on the muscle under observation.




Electromyographic sensors attached to the face records the electric signals produced by the facial muscles, compare them with pre-recorded signal pattern of spoken words





FIG 3.3 Electromyographic sensors attached to the face records the electric signals produced by the facial muscles, compare them with pre-recorded signal pattern of spoken words



As shown in Figure 3.3 the electromyography sensors attached to the face records the electric signals produced by the facial muscles, compare them with pre-recorded signal pattern of spoken words.


3.4 WORKING OF ELECTROMYOGRAPHY

1. A needle containing two fine-wired electrodes is inserted through the skin into the muscle tissue.

2. Then the electrical activity when the muscle is at rest is observed. Each electrode track gives only a very local picture of the activity of the whole muscle

3. Because skeletal muscles differ in the inner structure, the electrode has to be placed at various locations to obtain an accurate signal. 

Thus by this way the speech can be communicated without sound



the camera attached to the face




Fig3.4 THE CAMERA ATTATCHED TO THE FACE
3.5 IMAGE PROCESSING

In electrical engineering and computer science, image processing is any form of signal processing for which the input is an image, such as a photograph or video frame; the output of image processing may be either an image or, a set of characteristics or parameters related to the image. Most image-processing techniques involve treating the image as a two-dimensional signal and applying standard signal-processing techniques to it.

The simplest form of digital image processing converts the digital data tape into a film image with minimal corrections and calibrations. 

Then large mainframe computers are employed for sophisticated interactive manipulation of the data. In the present context, overhead prospective are employed to analyze the picture.

Most image-processing techniques involve treating the image as a two-dimensional signal and applying standard



Fig 3.5 Silent sound technology using image processing.



Signal-processing techniques to it. Figure 3.5 shows how image processing works in case of silent sound technology.

Analysis of remotely sensed data is done using various image processing techniques and methods that includes:

1. Analog image processing

2. Digital image processing 



Analog processing techniques: is applied to hard copy data such as photographs or printouts.

It adopts certain elements of interpretation, such as primary element, spatial arrangement etc, 

With the combination of multi-concept of examining remotely sensed data in multispectral, multitemporal, multiscales and in conjunction with multidisciplinary, allows us to make a verdict not only as to what an object is but also its importance. Apart from these it also includes optical photogrammetric techniques allowing for precise measurement of the height, width, location, etc. of an object.

Digital Image Processing involves a collection of techniques for the manipulation of digital images by computers. It contain some flaws. To overcome the flaws and deficiencies in order to get the originality of the data, it needs to undergo several steps of processing.

Digital Image Processing undergoes three general steps:

1. Pre-processing

2. Display and enhancement

3. Information extraction



3.6 Flow chart of digital image processing


The Flow diagram that explains the steps that takes place during the Digital Image Processing is shown on the next slide ……



3.7 FEATURES OF SILENT SOUND TECHNOLOGY

Some of the features of silent sound technology are –

1. Native speakers can silently utter a sentence in their language, and the receivers can hear the translated sentence in their language. It appears as if the native speaker produced speech in a foreign language. The translation technology works to languages like English, French and German, except Chinese, where different tones can hold many different meanings.

2. Allow people to make silent calls without bothering others.

3. The Technology opens up a host of application such as mentioned below

4. Helping people who have lost their voice due to illness or accident.

5. Telling a trusted friend your PIN number over the phone without anyone eavesdropping — assuming no lip-readers are around.

6. Silent Sound Techniques is applied in Military for communicating secret/confidential matters to others.


3.8 APPLICATION AREAS 
As we know in space there is no medium for sound to travel therefore this technology can be best utilized by astronauts. 
We can make silent calls even if we are standing in a crowded place. 
This technology is helpful for people without vocal cord or those who are suffering from Aphasia (speaking disorder). 
This technology can be used for communication in nasty environment. 
To tell a secret PIN no. , or credit card no. on the phone now be easy as there is no one eavesdrop anymore. 
Since the electrical signals are universal they can be translated into any language. Native speakers can translate it before sending it to the other side. Hence it can be converted into any language of choice currently being German, English & French. 


3.9 ADVANTAGES OF SILENT SOUND TECHNOLOGY

1. Helping people who have lost their voice due to illness or accident.

2. We can make silent calls even if we are standing in a crowded place.

3. Allow people to make silent calls without bothering others.

4. Silent Sound Techniques is applied in Military for communicating secret/confidential matters to others.

5. Since the electrical signals are universal they can be translated into any language. Native speakers can translate it before sending it to the other side. Hence it can be converted into any language of choice currently being German, English & French

3.10 DISADVANTAGES

1. Translation into majority of languages but for languages such as Chinese different tone holds different meaning, facial movements being the same. Hence this technology is difficult to apply in such situations.

2. From security point of view recognizing who you are talking to gets complicated.

3. Even differentiating between people and emotions cannot be done. This means you will always feel you are talking to a robot.

4. This device presently needs nine leads to be attached to our face which is quite impractical to make it usable.

3.11 RESEARCH AND FUTURE PROSPECT

1. Silent sound technology gives way to a bright future to speech recognition technology from simple voice commands to memorandum dictated over the phone all this is fairly possible in noisy public places.

2. Without having electrodes hanging all around your face, these electrodes will be incorporated into cell phones.

3. It may have features like lip reading based on image recognition & processing rather than electromyography.

4. Nano technology will be a mentionable step towards making the device handy.

With all of the millions of phones in circulation, there is great potential for increasing earnings by saving 'lost calls' - telephone calls that go unanswered or uninitiated because the user is in a situation in which he or she cannot speak – not just in business meetings, but everyday situations. According to research, these 'lost calls' are worth $20 billion per year worldwide. For the cellular operator, these are potential earnings that are currently being left on the table.



CHAPTER 4
4.1 SUMMARY AND CONCLISION


Silent Sound Technology, one of the recent trends in the field of information technology implements “Talking without Actually Talking”. Engineers claim that the device is working with 99 percent efficiency. It is difficult to compare SSI technologies directly in a meaningful way. Since many of the systems are still preliminary, it would not make sense, for example, to compare speech recognition scores or synthesis quality at this stage. ‘Silent Sound’ technology aims to notice every movements of the lips and transform them into sounds, which could

help people who lose voices to speak, and allow people to make silent calls without bothering others. Rather than making any sounds, your handset would decipher the movements your mouth makes by measuring muscle activity, then convert this into speech that the person on the other end of the call can hear. So, basically, it reads your lips. It will be one of the innovation and useful technology and in mere future this technology will be used in our day to day life.

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References

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