Sunday, 22 January 2017

Project On Classroom Attendance System Using Radio Frequency Identification RFID

Project On Classroom Attendance System Using Radio Frequency Identification RFID
Project On Classroom Attendance System Using Radio Frequency Identification RFID

ABSTRACT

Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a technology that uses radio waves to transfer data from an electronic tag, called RFID tag, attached to an object, through a reader for the purpose of identifying and tracking the object. The class management system provides the functionalities of the overall system such as displaying ID tag transaction, recording attendance and other minor functions. The tools used for achieving the system are assembly language (the programming language for the microcontroller AT89C51), the Micro Integrated Development Environment (MIDE) used is called MIDE asm-51 (this is the environment where the assembly language was written, built in order to generate the .hex file for simulating the system and burning the microcontroller) and other physical components like reset button, 40 pin IC socket, ribbon cable and vero board. The methodology used in system is strictly based on Rapid Application Prototyping. The system comprises of the RFID module reader typically contains a module (transmitter and Receiver), a control unit, a coupling element (antenna) and RFID tags. The System could be able to store the student’s data in the AT89C51 microcontroller. It reduces and eliminates paper based work, saving the time of attendance call; authenticate attendance with no proxy attendance.


CHAPTER ONE

                                                INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the study

Classroom Attendance Management System (CAMS) is the easiest way to assist the faculty and the lecturer for this time-consuming process. The most common means of tracking student attendance in the classroom is by enforcing the students to manually sign the attendance sheet, which is normally passed around the classroom while the lecturer is conducting the lecture. For instance, lecturers with a large class may find the hassle of having the attendance sheet being passed around the class and the manual signing of attendance by students are burdensome and most likely distract them from teaching and getting full attention from the students .Besides, as the attendance sheet is passed around the class, some students may accidentally or purposely sign another student's name. The first case leads to a student missing out their name, while the latter leads to a false attendance record. Another issue of having the attendance record in a hardcopy Form is that a lecturer may lose the attendance sheet. In terms of attendance analysis, the lecturer also has to perform manual computation to obtain the students’ attendance percentage, which normally consume a lot of time.

RFID (Radio frequency identification) is a new technology that incorporates the use of electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the radio frequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to uniquely identify an object, animal, or person. Radio frequency identification can be a powerful tool in helping to manage student‘s attendance throughout the working school day and also enhance classroom security. RFID technology has been applied to solve problems where it is necessary to take automatically record the movements and locations of students in a classroom of school/university environment. RFID, which is an automatic identification technology used for retrieving from or storing data on to RFID Tags without any physical contact.
Recent advancements in chip manufacturing technology are making RFID practical for new applications and settings, particularly consumer item level tagging. These advancements have the potential to revolutionize supply-chain management, inventory control, and logistics. At its most basic, RFID systems consist of small transponders, or tags, attached to physical objects. RFID tags may soon become the most pervasive microchip in history. An RFID system primarily comprises of RFID Tags, RFID Reader, and Middleware. RFID Tags are uniquely and universally identified by an identification sequence, governed by the rubrics of EPC global Tag Data Standard. A tag can either be passively activated by an RFID reader or it can actively transmit RF signals to the reader. When wirelessly interrogated by RFID transceivers, or readers, tags respond with some identifying information that may be associated with arbitrary data records. Thus, RFID systems are one type of automatic identification system, similar to optical bar codes.
There are many kinds of RFID systems used in different applications and settings. These systems have different power sources, operating frequencies, and functionalities. The properties and regulatory restrictions of a particular RFID system will determine its manufacturing costs, physical specifications, and performance. Some of the most familiar RFID applications are item-level tagging with electronic product codes, proximity cards for physical access control, and contact-less payment systems. Many more applications will become economical in the coming years.
While RFID adoption yields many efficiency benefits, it still faces several hurdles. Besides the typical implementation challenges faced in any information technology system and economic barriers, there are major concerns over security and privacy in RFID systems.

1.2       Problem Definition
Most of the universities still use old method to take attendance student by giving attendance sheet to student and student only needs to sign that paper. By use this method, many students will cheat by asking their friends to help them to sign their attendance if they absent. With this method, lecturers have to analyze and record the attendance list manually to know who absent and come to class. If the attendance sheet lost, the lecturers have to take attendance again and this will give opportunity to students to cheat their attendance. This would impose the lecturer and data that given also inaccurate. 
The attendance of all students present in a given class was recorded. To carry out this registration, each lecturer has an attendance register that must be filled in for every class held.
 At the beginning of each lesson the lecturer was required to fill in the attendance sheet with all the information concerning the lesson. After that, the attendance sheet handed out so that all students will sign the sheet. When all students have signed, the lecturer collects the sheet and checks the attendance of each student. The purpose of the attendance sheet is to verify whether the student has already exceeded the maximum number of absences allowed for each subject. This procedure, besides being troublesome for lecturer, also affects students as time is expended on signing, verifying and submitting the attendance sheet manually. Therefore, a system that can manage and help the lecturers to take attendance easily has to be developed. This system must be created based on UMP regulation for attendance contains information about all students from a lecturers section. The system can be easily accessed by the lecturers. This system must be able to manipulate and manage the data of the student attendance so that the lecturers do not have to analyze the student attendance manually. They only have to transfer the data, and the system will analyze all the data automatically. Moreover, these loading processes will have to be carried out every semester.
  
1.3       Aims of the Research
The aim of this system is to transform manual management system to automatic system by the Radio frequency identification technology. The Student Attendance System using Radio frequency identification technology will significantly improve the current manual process of student attendance recording and tracking system, especially in a university environment. The system promotes a fully-automated approach in capturing the student attendance and monitoring the student in the university campus. And also to uniquely identify individual students based on their unique tag identifiers.

Objectives
Radio frequency identification (RFID) based attendance system is one of the solutions to address the above mentioned problems.
·         As a system that can automatically capture students attendance by flashing their student card at the RFID reader or passing under the reader without physical site of contact, it reduces and eliminates paper based work, saving the time of attendance call; authenticate attendance with no proxy attendance.
·         Secured Radio frequency identification (RFID) based attendance system will be able to provide security and privacy in such a way that the tags and the product codes will not be compromised.
These objectives will lead to an improved students’ attendance to classes and their performance.

1.4       Significance of the Study
This project will be beneficial to lectures and administrators of colleges and university around the world with large number of students per class and still uses the manual method of taking students class attendance by roll or signing attendance sheet. 

1.5       SCOPE OF THE STUDY     
RFID technology has a widened horizon as it transcends into an era of emerging applications. This research work will focus on the design and construction of an attendance management system using RFID technology to monitor the attendance for a group of students. The design will incorporate both physical security for the class environment and internal security and privacy for proper student authentication.

1.6 LIMITATIONS

The major limitations associated with Classroom attendance System using RFID are:
·         No RFID standard has been set yet. (The Auto-ID center has worked with standard bodies Uniform Code Council and EAN International to come up with electronic product code, but it is not yet considered a standard).
·         The demand should also drive down the price. (Wal-Mart says that a need for one billion RFID tags should drive down the price to five dollars each.)
·         Physical limitations like reading through liquid or metals still exist. Accurate read rates on some items can be very low. Nylon conveyor belts and other RFs can disrupt the tag transmissions in warehouses increase in expenses - the suppliers will have to equip their warehouses and transport vehicles with readers. These readers have to be connected to the computer networks for exchange of information. All these mean additional costs related to hiring technical consultants and additional hardware.
·         In the tie up with IBM Global Services that has resulted in deployment of RFID equipment in grocery sections of seven pilot In the tie up with IBM Global Services that has resulted in deployment of RFID equipment in grocery sections of seven pilot Wal-Mart stores, IBM consultants have encountered interference from equipment such as handheld walkie-talkies, forklifts, and other devices typically found in distribution facilities. Cell phone towers located near the premises, which transmit at the high end of the frequency band, sometimes leak unwanted radio waves into RFID readers.


1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Antennae: They are the conduits between the tag and the transceiver, which controls the system’s data acquisition and communication.
Bar Code: A standard method of identifying items based on lines of varying widths and spacing that are visually read by a scanner. The UPC bar code standard provides a way of identifying manufacturers and product categories. Other types of bar codes are used for shipping and other kinds of item identification. See also Scanner and Universal Product Code (UPC).

 Controller: It is the interface between one or more antenna and the device requesting information from or writing information to the RF tags.

Data Transfer Rate: The rate at which data are transferred between the reader and a tag, generally measured in bits per second (bps).

Tag: A combination of a microchip and antenna that can be programmed with information to identify items and transmit that information to a receiver. Some tags can also receive new information, such as location information during shipment.

Reader/Writer: A device that can both retrieve information from a tag and write information to a tag. Many applications require that new data or revisions to data already in the tag, be entered into the tag, while it remains attached to its object. The ability to read from and write data to the tag while attached to its object is called in-use programming. Tags with this capability are said to be re-programmable and are called read/write tags, memory cards or memory modules

Radio-frequency identification (RFID): It is the wireless non-contact use of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields to transfer data, for the purposes of automatically identifying and tracking tags attached to objects.

Scanner: A device that reads bar codes. The antenna's, transmitter (or exciter) and receiver electronics integrated in a single package called the scanner. They may be combined with additional digital electronics including a microprocessor in a package called a reader.


 1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE CHAPTERS
The work was organized in chapters so as to  be conducive for the reader when reading, it was arranged as thus: Chapter one- Introduction which consist of the Background of the study, Problem definition, Aim and  objectives of the study,  Significance of the study, Scope of the study, Limitations, Organization of work and Definition of terms, Chapter Two- Literature review which consists of the History of Radio frequency identification (RFID) and Related Literatures, Chapter Three- System analysis which consist of Methodology/Data collection methods, system requirements consist of Hardware requirements, Software Requirements. Functional Requirements and Non-functional Requirement. Chapter Four- System Design which consist of Program design, Input Design, Output Design and Test Plan. Chapter five-System implementation which consist of testing, User testing and documentation which consist of user manual, installation guide and troubleshooting. Chapter six- Conclusion which consist of summary, evaluation, problem encountered and lesson learnt.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1    Historical Development of RFID
In 1986, the modern era of neural networks was ushered in by the derivation of back propagation. In the short ten years since the rewriting of parallel distributed processing (Rumelhart and McClelland, 1986) an enormous amount of literature has been written on the topic of neural networks. Because neural networks are applied to such a wide variety of subjects, it is very difficult to absorb the wealth of available material. A brief history of neural networks has been written to give an understanding of where the evolution of neural networks started. A detailed review has also been written for this study of the feed-forward neural network and the back propagation algorithm. Papers on various topics related to this study are detailed to establish the need for the proposed work in this study. However, ten years is not a very long time for research, so no one book has distinguished itself as the leading authority in the area of neural networks.

 

RFID is not a new technology despite rapidly growing interest in RFID technology in recent years. The concept of the technology dates to “the mid to late 1940s, following on from technological developments in the 1930s and the development of radar during World War II” (Hodges and McFarlane, 2005). In the 1950s, several technologies related to RFID technology were developed. One prominent example is the “identification friend or foe (IFF)” system for aircraft which is a long-range transponder system. An active IFF system was first developed for British aircraft whereby each aircraft was equipped with a transponder. When radar stations emitted signals from the ground, the aircraft transmitted a signal back to identify itself as friendly (RFID journal, 2007). The first commercial applications emerged in the 1960s and 1970s. The electronic article surveillance (EAS) equipment was developed by new companies such as Sensormatic and Checkpoints (Landt and Catlin, 2001) to prevent theft of goods at the point of sale. This system is currently in widespread use. With generally a 1-bit transponder, it is the most basic use. The data is sufficient to tell the reader whether a transponder is located in a certain area or not (Finkenzeller, 2006). Overall, this period was characterized by important further development of RFID technology. Research focused on applications for animal tracking, vehicle tracking, car keys, as well as process automation in production facilities (Landt and Catlin, 2005). Besides the development of these commercial applications, governments also began the development of RFID systems in the 1970s. For example, the US Department of Agriculture spurred the development of animal tracking and the US Department of Energy promoted the development of a system to track nuclear materials (RFID Journal, 2007) which was put in place in the mid-1980s. In the 1980s, the “commercial exploitation of RFID started to increase, led initially by small companies” (Hodges and McFarlane, 2005). An important aspect for the expansion of the technology was the development of the Personal Computer (PC) facilitating data management. Whereas the exploitation of RFID was a common point in different countries, the interest in special fields of application diverged. The main interests in the US were for applications including access control of persons and transportation.
Countries were mainly interested in toll collection systems and industrial applications as well as short-range systems for the tracking of animals (Landt and Catlin, 2001). Overall, from a technological point of view, applications developed to this point were mainly operating at low-frequency and high–frequency ranges. In the early 1990s, applications operating at ultra-high frequency (UHF) emerged (RFID journal, 2007). These systems attained a higher read range and faster data transmission than systems operating at lower frequency ranges. The very first pilot projects started in the retail sector for the tracking of consumer goods along the supply chain. However, due to low volumes, these RFID systems were expensive (RFID Journal, 2007). A further obstacle to widespread use was that applications to this date were niche applications. As a consequence, a large number of proprietary systems were developed which were incompatible with each other (Landt and Catlin, 2001). The development of standards was thus crucial both for price decline and the use of RFID technology beyond niche applications. Standardisation activities emerged in the late 1990s. The International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) developed several standards in the field of RFID. One example is the ISO 18000 series which defines the air interface for different frequencies, i.e. how readers and tags of an RFID system communicate with each other. Furthermore, in 1999, the Auto-ID Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) was established “to develop an open standard architecture for creating a seamless global network of physical objects” (Auto-ID Labs, 2006). It was initially funded by the Uniform Code Council, European Article Numbering (EAN) International and industry. By the year 2003, the Center was supported by over 100 user companies, key RFID suppliers and the US Department of Defense and a federation of Auto-ID research institutes was created. Specifications developed by the Auto-ID Center focused on low cost tags for goods with the aim of tracking them along the supply chain. The results of the standardisation activities include two air interface specifications, the Electronic Product Code (EPC) numbering scheme as well as a network architecture (RFID Journal, 2007). These specifications were passed to EPC global for commercialisation purposes, besides standardisation activities, the 1990s were furthermore characterised by an increased commercialisation of RFID systems. According to Landt and Catlin (2001), electronic toll collection systems were widely deployed both in the United States and Europe. For example, different regional toll agencies in the Northeast of the United States developed a regionally compatible toll system. Further important implementation projects included applications such as the tagging of over three (3) million rail cars in the United States, access control applications (e.g. company badges and ski passes) as well as applications along the supply chains of companies. For example, in the late 1990s, European car manufacturers started RFID projects for asset tracking and tracking of parts along their internal supply chains. In addition, an RFID–based immobiliser system for cars was commercialised in the mid-1990s which authenticate car keys and is in wide use. With the broader deployment of scheme as well as a network architecture (RFID Journal, 2007). These specifications were passed to EPC global for commercialisation purposes, besides standardisation activities, the 1990s were furthermore characterised by an increased commercialisation of RFID systems. According to Landt and Catlin (2001), electronic toll collection systems were widely deployed both in the United States and Europe. For example, different regional toll agencies in the Northeast of the United States developed a regionally compatible toll system. Further important implementation projects included applications such as the tagging of over three (3) million rail cars in the United States, access control applications (e.g. company badges and ski passes) as well as applications along the supply chains of companies. For example, in the late 1990s, European car manufacturers started RFID projects for asset tracking and tracking of parts along their internal supply chains. In addition, an RFID–based immobiliser system for cars was commercialised in the mid-1990s which authenticate car keys and is in wide use. With the broader deployment of these applications, multiple use tags arose e.g. for toll collection, access control and gated community access (Landt and Catlin, 2001).
The beginning of the 21st century is marked by growing interest of industry, government and the media in RFID technology further technical development, and first round of standards harmonization.
 In addition, the public sector has important RFID implementation projects e.g. in the areas of defense, health, e-passports and identity cards. Overall, the range of different applications is broadening at a rapid pace and new applications which also integrate other technologies such as sensor technology are emerging.

2.1.1 Related Literatures
The potential in terms of benefits and performance enhancements appear to be promising for companies in a wide array of industries. Many who have already embraced and integrated RFID into current business processes have discovered and gained a number of advantages including a competitive edge towards other actors.
It is relevant to understand how RFID have influenced and affected others. In fact it can be considered crucial for most business managers to understand the impact of RFID on supply chains as a whole. The case studies described hereafter serve to provide a brief understanding of how RFID have been used by other firms and what benefits the technology has provided.

2.1.1.1 United States Defense logistics

The US. Government Accountability Office (GAO) together with the Department of Defense (DOD) is investigating how RFID can be implemented in supply chains throughout the various defense-branches. Currently, active tags are being used to track large and bulky assets overseas. However, the plan is to invest over $500 million in a full implementation of passive technology throughout the supply chains.
The DOD estimates that RFID technologies can reduce system loss, waste, and theft. By allowing for hands-off identification of assets, the DOD can develop a more transparent inventory management system and increase visibility. Passive RFID technology is described by the DOD as ‘promising’, both for logistics operations in the military, as well as commercially. (US. GAO, 2005)


2.1.1.2 RFID receiving systems at Paramount farms                                                
Paramount farms, one of the largest suppliers of pistachios worldwide, implemented RFID on the receiver end of the supply chain in order to increase goods visibility. Trailers from suppliers were tagged and the Paramount facility was equipped with readers. The system allowed for automatic data entry, ensured accuracy and a more effective logistics process. Before implementing RFID, employees handled data entry, and goods check manually; a time consuming process, sometimes resulting in errors.
Paramount noted that RFID speeded up the goods receiving process significantly. Loading times were shortened with up to 60%, and trailer usage was reduced with about 30%, enabling the company to meet increased production goals without investing in new assets or increasing workforce. (Barua, Deeoa and Andrew, 2006).

2.2.3 Lahey Clinic Managing Healthcare Assets Using RFID

Lahey clinic Medical Centre, a medium sized medical facility in Boston has some 1,500 pieces of movable medical equipment. The hospital implemented an RFID based tracking system in order to keep track of its assets. Equipment was tagged with passive reflectors and readers were installed at key points throughout the facility.
The hospital noted significant improvements in tracking equipment throughout the facility.
Staff utilized time more effectively, in that less time had to spend finding equipment. Also, the increased effectiveness reduced problems with overstocking and allowed for increased asset utilization and use of investment. Finally, equipment maintenance routines were optimized in that the asset tracking system of the hospital was linked with the database of its providers, allowing for responsive maintenance. (Barua et.al, 2006).

2.1.1.1Radio frequency identification (RFID)
RFID, which stands for Radio frequency identification, is an automatic identification technology used for retrieving from or storing data on tRFID Tags without any physical contact. It is a technology that is used to collect information automatically by radio frequency data communication between mobile objects and an RFID reader, to identify, categorize and track the mobile objects. According to Lim et al (2009), an RFID system primarily comprises of RFID TagsRFID Reader, Middlewarand  a  Backend  databaseRFID Tags are uniquely and universally identified by an identification sequence, governed by the rubrics of EPC (Electronic product key) global Tag Data Standard. A tag can either be passively activated by an RFID reader or it can actively transmit RF signals to the reader. The RFID reader, through its antenna, reads the information stored on these tags when it’s in its vicinity.
The reader, whose effective range is based on its operational frequency, is designed to operate at a certain frequency. The operational frequency of the reader ranges from 125 KHz–2.4 GHz. The Middleware encompasses all those components that are responsible for the transmission of germane information from the reader to the backend management systems. The Middleware can include hardware components like cables and connectivity ports and embedded system softwar like Assembly language and embedded C tha monitor and control the communication between the hardware and the computer system.  The Backend database stores individual tag identifiers to uniquely identify the roles of each tag. The database stores record entries pertaining to individual tags and its role in the system application.  The RFID system is interdependent on its core components to achieve maximum efficiency and optimum performance of the application. Due to its high degree of flexibility, the system can be easily adopted for an array of applications ranging from small scale inventory cabinets to multifarious and highly agile supply chain management systems. Although, the cost of incorporating this technology has restricte its outreach, the technology promises to have untapped potential.

2.1.1.2 Components of an RFID System
According to (Domdouzis et al. (2007), an RFID system consists of various components that are connected to one another by a dedicated communication path (see figure 1.2). The individual components are integrated into the system to implement the benefits of RFID solution. The components is as follows:
·         Tags
Tags are objects that are attached to any product and use unique   sequenc o character t defin them. A tag consists of a microchip that stores a unique sequence identifier that is useful in identifying objects individually. The sequence is a numeric serial, which is stored in the RFID memory. The microchip includes minute circuitry and an embedded silicon chip. The tag memory can be permanent or re-writable, which can be re-programmed electronically by the reader multiple times. Tags are designed specific to its applications and environment. For example, paper-thin tags are attached to books in a library management system. Tags are available in various shapes and sizes (see figure 1.3). Tags that are initiated by the reader are known as Passive tags, whilst those that do not require external initiation are called Active tags. A Semi-Passive tag exists, which has the features of both Active and Passive tags. Each tag type has its distinct characteristics, which are discussed in table 1. Tags are operable on Microwave (2.4 2.5 GHz), Ultra High Frequency (UHF) (860 1500 MHz), High Frequency (HF) (13.56 MHz) and Low Frequency (LF) (125 kHz).





 
Tags can be classified according to their power and memory resources. A tags memory is classified as read-only, writeonce, readmany and rewritable. In terms of power supply, tags are classified into three categories: passive, semi- passive and active. Tags are called passive if they have no power supplies, they receive their computational power from the electrical field generated by the reader. Semi-passive tags use a battery, but that battery is  not  for  communication, instead, it is used to run the internal circuitry, and the energy of communication is provided by the reader. Active tags use a battery for both communication and running the internal circuitry. EPC Class 1 Generation 2 (EPC-C1-GEN2) has served as the most popular standard for passive tags. It supports on- chip 16-bit Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG), and a 16-bit cyclic redundancy Code (CRC) checksum is used to detect errors in the transmitted data.
·         Antenna
It is responsible for the transmission of information between the reader and tag using radio waves. The antenna is the medium through which the tag and reader communicate with each other.  Antenna can activate a passive tag and transfer data by emitting wireless impulse that has electromagnetic properties. They come in following types:  
o   Stick antennas,
o   Di-pole or multi-pole antennas,
o   Beam-forming or phased-array element antennas,
o   Circular polarized,
o   Gate antennas,
o   Patch antennas,
o   Linear polarized,
o   Adaptive antennas, and
o   Omni directional antennas
·         Reader
Reader is a scanning device that uses the antenna to communicate to the  tags  that  arin  its  vicinity.  It transmits signals at a certain frequencies.
·         Middleware
Middleware is embedded system program which is a communication   interface   that control, interpret and process data being fed by the readers into system. It takes into account all relevant ports of communication and a software application to represent this information. Middleware   is   softwar based   applicatio which manages the readers, the data coming from the tags, and passes it to the backend database system. Data from tags must go through software (middleware) that can filter, convert, correct and relay it to the appropriate systems. The middleware can reside on a reader or a server
·         Backend database
A database is defined as an organized collection of data and tailored to system, the backend database primarily deals with the storage of relevant information recorded by the reader and communicated by the middleware..
2.1.1.3 Tag Selection
Every tag has an identifier that is used to uniquely identify it. A tag identifier format that is used across many industrial sectors is the Electronic Product Code (EPC). The tag identifier format consists of four data fields.
The parts are:
·         The Header, which specifies the EPC type,
·         The EPC Manager  ID,  whicuniquely identifies the  organization that is responsible for assigning the object class and serial number   bits   (ofte th manufacturer   o th item),
·         the Object Class, which identifies a class of objects, such as a certain model of television set, and
·          The Serial Number, which uniquely describes the instance of that class of objects (e.g., a particular television set).
Passive tags do not have an internal power source and need to draw power from an RFID interrogator. The interrogator emits electromagnetic waves that induce a current in the tag's antenna and powers the chip on the tag. When the power to the tag‘s chip passes the minimum voltage threshold, the circuit turns on and the tag sends the information back to the reader. Semi-passive tags have an on-board power source like active tags but utilize it only when they are interrogated by a reader. Communication on these  tags  is  carried  out  through  reflection  as  it  is  on passive tags. The onboard power helps these tags in implementing more computationally intensive functionalities and enhancing their read ranges. Active tags contain their own battery that supplies energy for both to power the chip on the tag and boost the return signal. Compared to  passive and  semi-passive tags, active  tags have  wider  read  ranges,  larger  memory  capacities  and faster processing times. This system uses the passive EPC Class 1 Gen 2 tag, because they are small in size, they having lighter weight, any person can carry easily like smart card, cheap in cost, it can easily be embedded in identity card, does not required battery or backup power.
The main advantage of EPC type coding is that it provides fast searching (indexing) for tag‘s ID. It gives the quick result of searching tags ‘ID in association to any conventional method such as sequence searching which is widely used in database system because it has simple method. Assume one organization has two institutes and each institute has 600 students.  Each institute has two departments and each department has 300 students. The total numbers of students are 1200 in an organization. All students tags ID are stored in database server. If any students tag ID is scanned by the reader and it is send to server to search and mark the presence in appropriate subjects class. Server will search all 1200 students tag‘s in worse case using linear searching method. If we use indexing using EPC coding for tag ID then it takes 2 (search for institute) + 2 (search for departments) + 300 (students id) = 304 search required in worse case.

2.1.1.4 Radio frequency identification (RFID) based attendance system

Radio frequency identification (RFID) based attendance systeis one of the solutions to address this problem. According to Sumita et al (2013), Radio frequency identification (RFID) based attendance system is a system that can automatically capture students attendance by flashing their student card at the RFID reader and by passing under an overhead Attendance Management System (AMS) is the easiest way to assist lecturers for this time-consuming process of calling or recording attendance (Arulogun et al, (2013)). The aim of this systeis to read the tags in class room and not read the student away or outside from the class room. For student attendance system, one can use both HF (3 MHz to 30 MHz [9]) or UHF (300 MHz to 3 GHz) readers and tags but it is recommended that one uses UHF readers because it can automatically identified students in the classroom while in case of HF reader Student need to place his card near the RFID reader to register his/her presence. In the use of HF reader, student may scan the other student card, but in UHF the reader automatically scan all tags and no chance for proxy attendance and latter or at instance instructor/teacher can get the message in his PC/laptop/mobile about how many students that are present and absent.  However UHF reader is expensive compare to HF but UHF reader is well suited for this system.
The reader communicates with the RFIDtag via radio waves and passes the information in digital form to a computer system. The information collected from the tags is stored in the interrogator and later transferred to a data processing system. This RFID system uses Read-only fixed mounted interrogators reader (A reader that can only read the information from the tag), however hand held reader can use where class room is not fix.
The interrogator zone is the area around an interrogator within which it can successfully communicate with a tag. Readers can attach to the system through any interface
(RS 232, USB, and Ethernet). In this system an interrogator connected to the network using TCP/IP interface to the LAN  network  easilbecause  every  campus  have  the facility of LAN infrastructure.

The server-less RFID scheme that can be used in Radio frequency identification (RFID) based attendance systeis shown in Figure 1.7. It is composed of tags, readers and CA (Certification Agency.
According to Abdul Aziz Mohammed and Jyothi Kameswari, (2013), there are two phases in server less scheme:
·         initialization and
·         Authentication.
The mobile reader accesses the CA (Certification Agency) and downloads the AL (Access List) through the secure connection in an initialization phase. The mobile reader is generally a portable device such as notebook computer or smart phones. It might be stolen. Then AL is stored in it. It may wrongly be used to imitate the tags. Credentials of tag authentication are derived with the help of tags key and RID (Reader Identification). It makes AL exclusively usable for the reader. But as a result, it is not possible for tag to create a valid request without the RID. In the authentication phase, the reader challenges a tag with RID, waiting for tags response with H (RID, Kt). The reader then searches its AL and finds the matched value to verify the Kt. It then identifies the TID (Tag Identification). Server-less RFID architecture provides readers with the scalability. However, there are drawbacks in server-less authentication protocol;
·         They transmit RID in plaintext.
·         Searching through AL has complexity of O (N), where N denotes the number of tags.
·         Computational processes of searching and verifying are executed all by single personnel portable device, which reduces the performance significantly.

CHAPTER 3
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
3.1 METHODOLOGY
The paper in question is an attendance systethat monitors student attendance and stored their data on a microcontroller. The mode of communication is wireless using a radio frequency module. The primary purpose of an RFID technology in the classroom attendance systeis to detect the presence and absence of the student data to be transmitted wirelessly by mobile device, called a tag, which is read by an RFID reader and processed according to the programmed instructions on the Microcontroller. RFID Based Attendance System development is divided into two parts, hardware and software part. The hardware part consists of electronic components connections. In this thesis, only the main components of classroom Attendance System using RFID will be described, common components will not be touched. For the software part, it discuss the development of microcontroller’s program and printed circuit board design.

3.2 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
Under the system requirement we have the hardware requirements and the software requirements

3.2.1 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
Firstly, the general components and process of RFID Based attendance system is outlined before moving on to the connections of each component. This is done to assist in determining the right electronic component for each process. The outline of the system is shown below:

HARDWARE DESCRIPTION 
• Microcontroller AT89C51
• LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) (16*2)
• RFID Reader
• RFID Passive Tags-2 tags
• 40 and 16 pin IC socket
• Regulator 7805 
• Capacitor 10µf 
• Connector
• Max 232
• Ribbon cable
• Vero board dotted
• Crystal Oscillator - 11.0592 MHz 
• Connecting wire
• Soldering lead
• Reset button
• Resistor 10K/1K/470/100 ohm
• Variable Resistor 10k
• Transformer


MICROCONTROLLER (AT89C51)
The AT89C51 is a CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM).  The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by ordinary nonvolatile memory programmer. Atmel AT89C51 is a powerful microcomputer/microcontroller (as they are used inter-changeably) which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications.
 The Atmel AT89 series is an Intel 8051-compatible family of 8 bit microcontrollers (µCs) manufactured by the Atmel Corporation. Based on the Intel 8051 core, the AT89 series remains very popular as general purpose microcontrollers, due to their industry standard instruction set, and low unit cost. This allows a great amount of legacy code to be reused without modification in new applications. While considerably less powerful than the newer AT90 series of AVRRISC microcontrollers, new product development has continued with the AT89 series for the aforementioned advantages. The first integrated circuits and processors appeared which caused computers and other products of electronics to drop down in price even more. They could be bought everywhere. AT89C51/AT89C52 microcontroller is a cheap, universal integrated circuit that could be programmed and used in any field of electronics, device or wherever needed. More recently, the AT89 series as in table 1.1 has been augmented with 8051-cored special function microcontrollers, specifically in the areas of USB, I²C (two wire interface), SPI and CAN bus controllers, MP3 decoders and hardware PWM.

RFID Tag
An RFID tag is comprised of a microchip containing identifying information and an antenna that transmits this data wirelessly to a reader. The RFID chip will contain a serialized identifier, or license plate number, that uniquely identifies that item, similar to the bar codes system. A key difference, however is that RFID tags have a higher data capacity than their bar code counterparts. An RFID tag can be placed on individual items, cases or pallets for identification purposes, as well as on fixed assets such as trailers, containers, totes, etc.

Radio frequency identification Reader (RFID Reader)
RFID reader is a device used to gather information from an RFID tag, which is used to track individual objects. Radio waves are used to transfer data from the tag to a reader. RFID is a technology similar in theory to bar codes. However, the RFID tag does not have to be scanned directly, nor does it require line-of-sight to a reader. The RFID tag it must be within the range of an RFID reader, which ranges from 3 to 300 feet, in order to be read. RFID technology allows several items to be quickly scanned and enables fast identification of a particular product, even when it is surrounded by several other items. RFID technology uses digital data in an RFID tag, which is made up of integrated circuits containing a tiny antenna for transferring information to an RFID transceiver. The majority of RFID tags contain at least an integrated circuit for modulating and demodulating radio frequency and an antenna for transmitting and receiving signals. Frequency ranges vary from low frequencies of 125 to 134 kHz and 140 to 148.5 kHz, and high frequencies of 850 to 950 MHz and 2.4 to 2.5 GHz. Wavelengths in the 2.4 GHz range are limited because they can be absorbed by water.


Liquid Crystal Display (LCD):
Liquid crystal display is the technology used for displays in notebook and other smaller computers. Like light-emitting diode (LED) and gas-plasma technologies, LCDs allow displays to be much thinner than cathode ray tube (CRT) technology the display unit consists of a 2*16 Liquid crystal display (LCD). This feature enables the status of the systeto be viewed on a screen, making the systeuser friendly. The model described here is for its low price and great capabilities most frequently used in practice. It is based on the HD44780 microcontroller (Hitachi) and can display messages in two lines with 16 characters each. It displays all the letters of alphabet, Greek letters, punctuation marks, mathematical symbols etc. In addition, it is possible to display symbols made up by the user. Other useful features include automatic message shift (left and right), cursor appearance, LED backlight etc.

TRANSFORMER:
A transformer is an electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction.
Regulator 7805:
Regulator is a device for controlling the rate of working of machinery or for controlling fluid flow, in particular a handle controlling the supply of steam to the cylinders of a steam engine.
JUMPER WIRE:
A jump wire, is a short electrical wire with a solid tip at each end (or sometimes without them, simply "tinned"), which is normally used to interconnect the components in a breadboard.
IC SOCKET (16 PIN and 40 PIN):
An IC socket, or integrated circuit socket, is used in devices that contain an integrated circuit. An IC socket is used as a placeholder for IC chips and is used in order to allow safe removal and insertion of IC chips because IC chips may become damaged from heat due to soldering.


Resistors:
Resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. Resistors may be used to reduce current flow, and, at the same time, may act to lower voltage levels within circuits.
Capacitor:
Capacitor is a device used to store an electric charge, consisting of one or more pairs of conductors separated by an insulator.
Crystals Oscillator:
A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a precise frequency. Oscillator circuit is constructed between 18 and 19 th pin of the controller. It includes an oscillator of 11.0592 MHz and two capacitors of 33pF
RIBBON CABLE:
Ribbon cable is also known as multi-wire planar cable, is a cable with many conducting wires running parallel to each other on the same flat plane.
RESET BUTTON
The 9th pin of microcontroller is configured as RST pin, known as reset pin. It include a switch, a capacitor and a resistor of 8.2k ohm. When switch is pressed RST pin gets connected to vcc and the controller gets reset.         
VERO BOARD
A Vero board is expertly constructed using strips of copper clad on a top quality board featuring a grid pattern of holes spaced 0.1" (or 2.54mm) apart. This design allows you to solder almost any non-surface mount ICs, resistors, capacitors onto the Vero board. With the Vero board you will receive both versatility and durability allowing you the freedom and flexibility you crave!





MAX 232

The MAX232 is an integrated circuit that converts signals from an RS-232 serial port to signals suitable for use in TTL compatible digital logic circuits. The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver and typically converts the RX, TX, CTS and RTS signals.

CONNECTOR             
Connector is a device used to join electrical circuit and are also referred to as electrical connector

3.2.2 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT
In the development cycle of the system, decisions were made on the parts of the system to be realized in the hardware design and the parts to be implemented in software. The software is decomposed into modules so that each module can be individually tested as a unit and debugged before the modules are integrated and tested as a software system in order to ensure that the software design meets its specification.
In order for the system to function properly, the software requirements include
·         Programming language called (assembly language): assembly language is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
·         Proteus design suite 8 (Simulator): The Proteus Design Suite is an Electronic         Design Automation (EDA) tool including schematic capture, simulation and PCB Layout modules.
·         Programmer firmware (pickit-3 version 3.1): is a type of software that provides control, monitoring and data manipulation of engineered products and systems.




3.4 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT
The system will be used from two different types of user that is the administrator and the lecturer. The lecturer collaborates in student details in the system while the admin will be responsible for the applications policies.

3.5 NON FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT
In every software and hardware development exist except the functional requirement and also sequence of non-functional requirement that played an important role for the future of the system. The above application will run student attendance system using the RFID Tag. The most important non- functional requirement in this case is the security for the reason that lecturers exchange every important information from student personal data.
 
User Friendly: - The proposed system is user friendly because the retrieval and storing of data is fast and data is maintained efficiently.

Availability: The system is always available to users whenever operation is required during the period of time.
Security: The system is only used by lecturer. This means that it enables authorized users.
Reliability: The system is readily reliable and well working if constant electricity is available.


CHAPTER FOUR
SYSTEM DESIGN

4.1 Program Design
Classroom Attendance system using RFID is a highly specialized system that automate the whole system of students’ attendance registration using RFID. The major factors in designing a classroom attendance system using RFID include: choosing the hardware and software components and integrating both to work together, defining the system working mode (verification or identification) and defining administration and optimization policy .

4.1.1 Flow Chart
Fig 4.1.1 flow chart design
Fig 4.1.1 flow chart design
Fig 4.1.2 Block diagram
Fig 4.1.2 Block diagram
WORKING:
Each student will hold a unique RFID tag and whenever student enters the RF receiver zone the attendance will be registered automatically. The data which has been received from the student’s unique card will be stored in the receiver buffer. The data is then compared with the pre-assigned data in the database and based on that the attendance is register to the particular student. The transmitter will hold a unique address which will be transmitted by the means of radio frequency to a particular region. The 2.3GHZ transponder will continuously respond to the incoming data and will gather the data from the transmitter. The data will then be stored in the microcontroller buffer. This unique id will be displayed in the LCD screen. Then this data will be sent to the database

4.2 Input Design
The input design of this system are electronics components used in building the system design, the soldering components and the simulation of the design which was design using proteus suite.
MICROCONTROLLER (AT89C51)
The AT89C51 is a CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM).  The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by ordinary nonvolatile memory programmer. Atmel AT89C51 is a powerful microcomputer/microcontroller (as they are used inter-changeably) which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications.
Fig. 1.1a Beck (1996) and 1.1b (live picture) External architecture of AT89C51/AT89C52 microcontroller
Fig. 1.1a Beck (1996) and 1.1b (live picture) External architecture of AT89C51/AT89C52 microcontroller
Table 4.2.1 micro controller
Table 4.2.1 micro controller
The Atmel AT89 series is an Intel 8051-compatible family of 8 bit microcontrollers (µCs) manufactured by the Atmel Corporation. Based on the Intel 8051 core, the AT89 series remains very popular as general purpose microcontrollers, due to their industry standard instruction set, and low unit cost. This allows a great amount of legacy code to be reused without modification in new applications. While considerably less powerful than the newer AT90 series of AVRRISC microcontrollers, new product development has continued with the AT89 series for the aforementioned advantages. The first integrated circuits and processors appeared which caused computers and other products of electronics to drop down in price even more. They could be bought everywhere. AT89C51/AT89C52 microcontroller is a cheap, universal integrated circuit that could be programmed and used in any field of electronics, device or wherever needed. More recently, the AT89 series as in table 1.1 has been augmented with 8051-cored special function microcontrollers, specifically in the areas of USB, I²C (two wire interface), SPI and CAN bus controllers, MP3 decoders and hardware PWM.

Fig 1.2 RFID TAG
Fig 1.2 RFID TAG
An RFID tag is comprised of a microchip containing identifying information and an antenna that transmits this data wirelessly to a reader. The RFID chip will contain a serialized identifier, or license plate number, that uniquely identifies that item, similar to the bar codes system. A key difference, however is that RFID tags have a higher data capacity than their bar code counterparts. An RFID tag can be placed on individual items, cases or pallets for identification purposes, as well as on fixed assets such as trailers, containers, totes, etc.

Radio frequency identification Reader (RFID Reader)
FIG 1.3 RFID READER
 FIG 1.3 RFID READER

RFID reader is a device used to gather information from an RFID tag, which is used to track individual objects. Radio waves are used to transfer data from the tag to a reader. RFID is a technology similar in theory to bar codes. However, the RFID tag does not have to be scanned directly, nor does it require line-of-sight to a reader. The RFID tag it must be within the range of an RFID reader, which ranges from 3 to 300 feet, in order to be read. RFID technology allows several items to be quickly scanned and enables fast identification of a particular product, even when it is surrounded by several other items. RFID technology uses digital data in an RFID tag, which is made up of integrated circuits containing a tiny antenna for transferring information to an RFID transceiver. The majority of RFID tags contain at least an integrated circuit for modulating and demodulating radio frequency and an antenna for transmitting and receiving signals. Frequency ranges vary from low frequencies of 125 to 134 kHz and 140 to 148.5 kHz, and high frequencies of 850 to 950 MHz and 2.4 to 2.5 GHz. Wavelengths in the 2.4 GHz range are limited because they can be absorbed by water. 

Liquid Crystal Display (LCD):
Liquid crystal display is the technology used for displays in notebook and other smaller computers. Like light-emitting diode (LED) and gas-plasma technologies, LCDs allow displays to be much thinner than cathode ray tube (CRT) technology. The display unit consists of a 2*16 Liquid crystal display (LCD). This feature enables the status of the system to be viewed on a screen, making the system user friendly.
Fig 1.4 (live picture): A typical LCD fig. 8.2b Zheludev, (2007)
Fig 1.4 (live picture): A typical LCD fig. 8.2b Zheludev, (2007)
The model described here is for its low price and great capabilities most frequently used in practice. It is based on the HD44780 microcontroller (Hitachi) and can display messages in two lines with 16 characters each. It displays all the letters of alphabet, Greek letters, punctuation marks, mathematical symbols etc. In addition, it is possible to display symbols made up by the user. Other useful features include automatic message shift (left and right), cursor appearance, LED backlight etc.

TRANSFORMER:
FIG 1.5 TRANSFORMER
FIG 1.5 TRANSFORMER
A transformer is an electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction.
Regulator 7805:
Regulator 7805:
Regulator 7805:
Regulator is a device for controlling the rate of working of machinery or for controlling fluid flow, in particular a handle controlling the supply of steam to the cylinders of a steam engine.

JUMPER WIRE:
FIG 1.6 JUMPER WIRE
FIG 1.6 JUMPER WIRE

A jump wire, is a short electrical wire with a solid tip at each end (or sometimes without them, simply "tinned"), which is normally used to interconnect the components in a breadboard.

IC SOCKET (16 PIN and 40 PIN):
IC SOCKET (16 PIN and 40 PIN)
IC SOCKET (16 PIN and 40 PIN)
An IC socket, or integrated circuit socket, is used in devices that contain an integrated circuit. An IC socket is used as a placeholder for IC chips and is used in order to allow safe removal and insertion of IC chips because IC chips may become damaged from heat due to soldering.

Resistors:
Resistors
Resistors
Resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. Resistors may be used to reduce current flow, and, at the same time, may act to lower voltage levels within circuits.

Capacitor
Capacitor
Capacitor

Capacitor is a device used to store an electric charge, consisting of one or more pairs of conductors separated by an insulator.

Crystals Oscillator: 
Crystals Oscillator
Crystals Oscillator
A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a precise frequency. Oscillator circuit is constructed between 18 and 19 th pin of the controller. It includes an oscillator of 11.0592 MHz and two capacitors of 33pF

RIBBON CABLE:
RIBBON CABLE
RIBBON CABLE

Ribbon cable is also known as multi-wire planar cable, is a cable with many conducting wires running parallel to each other on the same flat plane.

RESET BUTTON
RESET BUTTON
RESET BUTTON
The 9th pin of microcontroller is configured as RST pin, known as reset pin. It include a switch, a capacitor and a resistor of 8.2k ohm. When switch is pressed RST pin gets connected to vcc and the controller gets reset.

VERO BOARD
VERO BOARD
VERO BOARD
A Vero board is expertly constructed using strips of copper clad on a top quality board featuring a grid pattern of holes spaced 0.1" (or 2.54mm) apart. This design allows you to solder almost any non-surface mount ICs, resistors, capacitors onto the Vero board. With the Vero board you will receive both versatility and durability allowing you the freedom and flexibility you crave!

MAX 232 
Fig:    physical component of max 232 and                              Pin configuration of MAX232
Fig:    physical component of max 232 and                              Pin configuration of MAX232 
The MAX232 is an integrated circuit that converts signals from an RS-232 serial port to signals suitable for use in TTL compatible digital logic circuits. The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver and typically converts the RX, TX, CTS and RTS signals.
Table 4.2.2: Pin configuration of MAX232
Table 4.2.2: Pin configuration of MAX232 
CONNECTOR
Connector
Connector
Connector is a device used to join electrical circuit and are also referred to as electrical connector

4.3 Output Design
The final output of the embedded system to be developed is the basically on the attendance by swipe or flashing the RFID Tag  on the RFID Reader, to register the RFID tag  which transmit to the LCD displayed and also on the host memory  platform.
Output Design 1
Output Design 1
And after registering the RFID tag on the platform it will display on the LCD, for example the student named Ayogu Vivian  has registered and her attendance as be recorded in the host memory platform.
Output Design 2
Output Design 2

CHAPTER FIVE
SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION
The aim of this section is to describe the overall Implementation of the Radio frequency identification, thereby, helping the lecturers to manage their student’s attendance systematically. The main objective is to automate the whole system of student’s attendance registration using RFID. The system must have database that contains student information and it must be able to help lecturer to get accurate attendance of every student time to time. Based on the attendance, a normal defaulters list and critical defaulters list will be generated and a mail will be sent to the parents of critical defaulters. The interfaces of the system are made very user friendly. With this system, students’ will become more disciplined and punctual, as the time that they come to the class will be recorded. As shown in Fig 2, the process begins when a student enters a classroom he will place his card near the reader if he.

5.1 TESTING
The system testing was done on proteus suite design
system testing 1
system testing 1
system testing 2
system testing 2
system testing 3
system testing 3

CHAPTER SIX
CONCLUSION
6.1 Summary
A recent development in technology allow many things to be done automatically and this include the automation of attendance taking. The implementation of RFID in attendance taking and the objectives stated on previous section has been achieved. The RFID Based Attendance System able to store the student’s data in the 89c51microcontroller’s EEPROM. The system can also uniquely identify the students based on the assigned ID and name stored inside the microcontroller. The process of tracking the absentees were also done properly by the microcontroller. Input buttons were successfully implemented on RFID Based Attendance System. The buttons provide the function to display the students entry stored on the LCD Display and display the absentees’ data on the LCD. The system is portable because the size is small and it provide two way power where adaptor power supply can be replaced by battery to power up the circuit. The portability of the system allow it to be placed on every type of classroom.

6.2 Evaluation
We had a limited amount of time for the completion of the design so as a result of that the system was not connected a computer and also does not have a database. It can still be improved by creating a graphic user interface (GUI) and also by connecting a CCTV camera to capture the students picture.

6.3 Recommendations

Based on the problem stated on the previous section, this part will explain a method or improvement that can be made on the system in order to tackle the problems.

6.4 Problem Encountered
There are several problems noticed in the development and design of RFID Based Attendance System. The first one is that the RFID Reader used in the design doesn’t support a long range scanning. Thus, students need to place his/her ID near the RFID reader. This could be a problem if there are many students attending a class because they have to take turn placing their card on the RFID reader.
The database of the students are stored in PIC16F76A microcontroller’.. It is also difficult to modify the data because the microcontroller need to be reprogrammed in order to introduce new entry in the database. In RFID Based Attendance System, lecturer still need to press a button to check the absentee. It may become a hassle for the lecturer to check the students name on the LCD. Thus, some sort of long range communication from the system to the lecturer need to be added.

6.5 Lesson Learnt
We learnt how to solder electronics components, how to program using assembly language and how to use to RFID technology in reading student attendance and in identifying object.

                                                                   REFERENCES
Abdul Aziz Mohammed and Jyothi Kameswari, (2013) Web-Server based Student   
               Attendance System using RFID Technology, International Journal of
               Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT)Volume 4 Issue 5.
Arulogun O. T., Olatunbosun, A., Fakolujo O. A., and Olaniyi, O. M.,(2013) RFID-
Based  Students Attendance  Management  System  International Journal of
Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 4, Issue 2.
Domdouzis K., Kumar B., and Anumba C.(2007) Radio- Frequency Identification   
              (RFID) applications: A brief introduction, Advanced Engineering   
              Informatics, Vol.21.
Ezekwe C. (2016).Completed artificial intelligent assignment3 pp.95-191, awka Anambra   
                state.
Ezekwe chinwe, Ndinechi Michael, Okwu Patrick (2012). System Architecture and  
                 programming Onitsha: B. fine
Ezekwe ,C. (2016). Class management system using RFID awka Anambra State.
Lim T.S., Sim S.C. and Mansor M.M.(2009). RFID Based Attendance System, in  
                 Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Industrial Electronics and  
                 Applications.
Sumita Nainan, Romin Parekh and  Tanvi Shah (2013). RFID     Technology Based        Attendance Management System International Journal of Information and Computation Technology. ISSN 0974-2239 Volume 3, pp. 131-138© International Research Publications House http://www. irphouse.com /ijict.htm\
Weis S. A., Sarma, S. E. Rivest R. L., and D. W. Engels. (2003). Security and   
             Privacy Aspects of Low-CosRadio frequency identification Systems.
                Security in Pervasive Computing.
Yeop Sabri M. K., Abdul Aziz M. Z. A., Mohd Shah M. S. R., and Abd  Kadir  M. F  
             (2007). Smart  Attendance  System  by  Using  RFID,  Asia Pacific  
             Conference oApplie Electromagneti Pro

APPENDIX

CODES WRITTEN IN ASSMBLY LANGUAGE
ORG 00H
RS BIT p3.3
EN BIT p3.4
SWITCH1 BIT p3.1
SWITCH2 BIT p3.2
RFID_SIGNA BIT P3.0
LINE1 EQU 80H
LINE2 EQU 0C0H
LCD_DATA EQU P2
;MOV p3,#00h
CALL INIT_LCD
;...........................................................
    DISPLAY:CALL INITIAL_MSG_1
            CALL WR_DATA1
            CALL WAIT
     SWIPE: CALL INITIAL_MSG_2
            CALL WR_DATA1
RFID_SIGNAL:MOV TMOD,#20H ;timer 1,mode 2(auto reload)
            MOV TH1,#-3 ;9600 baud rate
            MOV SCON,#50H ;8-bit, 1 stop, REN enabled
            SETB TR1 ;start timer 1
KEEP_CHECKN:JNB RI,KEEP_CHECKN ;wait for signal to come in
           CALL OPEN_DOOR
           JMP SWIPE
;...........................................................
 OPEN_DOOR:
           CALL MSG_OPEN
           CALL WR_DATA1
           CLR SWITCH1;..............
           SETB SWITCH2;.............OPEN DOOR PLS
           CALL WAIT
           CLR SWITCH1
           CLR SWITCH2
           CALL WAIT1
           CALL MSG_CLOSE
           CALL WR_DATA1
           SETB SWITCH1;...............
           CLR SWITCH2;................CLOSE DOOR PLS
           CALL WAIT1
           CLR SWITCH1
           RET
 ;..........................................................
 wr_instr:CLR RS
             MOV LCD_DATA,a
             SETB EN
             call delay5ms
             CLR EN
             RET
             
wr_data:SETB RS
            mov LCD_DATA,a
            SETB EN
            call delay5ms
            CLR EN
            RET
             
INIT_LCD:mov a,#30h
             mov a,#38h
             call wr_instr
             mov a,#0ch
             call wr_instr
             mov a,#06h
             call wr_instr
             mov a,#01h
             call wr_instr
             ret
             
display_letter: call wr_data
                        ret
                       
INITIAL_MSG_1:
        mov dptr,#dm_1 
            mov r0,#30h
            call mov_next
            mov dptr, #dm_2   
            mov r0,#40h
            call mov_next
            ret
INITIAL_MSG_2:
        mov dptr,#dm_11
            mov r0,#30h
            call mov_next
            mov dptr, #dm_22  
            mov r0,#40h
            call mov_next
            ret
MSG_OPEN:mov dptr,#dm_3 
            mov r0,#30h
            call mov_next
            mov dptr, #dm_4   
            mov r0,#40h
            call mov_next
            ret
MSG_CLOSE:mov dptr,#dm_5 
            mov r0,#30h
            call mov_next
            mov dptr, #dm_6   
            mov r0,#40h
            call mov_next
            ret
attemt:
           CALL MSG_OPEN
           CALL WR_DATA1
           CLR SWITCH1;..............
           SETB SWITCH2;.............OPEN DOOR PLS
           CALL WAIT
           CLR SWITCH1
           CLR SWITCH2
           CALL WAIT1
           CALL MSG_CLOSE
           CALL WR_DATA1
           SETB SWITCH1;...............
           CLR SWITCH2;................CLOSE DOOR PLS
           CALL WAIT1
           CLR SWITCH1
           RET    
           
                                   
dm_1:db'  SWIPE CARD TO #'            
dm_2:db'    REGISTER..  #'

dm_3:db'RFID_BASED DOOR  #'
dm_4:db'RFID ATTENDANCE #'

dm_5:db'TRY 3 TIMES OR D#'
dm_6:db'RIGHT CARD..... #'

dm_11:db'WAITN FOR VALID  #'  
dm_22:db'RFID CARD SWIPE #'

dm_12:db' YOU ARE WELCOM #'  
dm_23:db'ENAKPOBIA ESTHER#'

dm_14:db' YOU ARE WELCOM #'  
dm_24:db'AYOGU VIVIAN .A.#'





mov_next: clr a
            movc a,@a+dptr
            mov @r0, a
            inc r0
            inc dptr
            cjne A,#'#',mov_next
            ret

Wr_data1:mov A,#LINE1            
            call wr_instr
            call delay5ms
            mov r0, #30h
wr_data1_:call display_data
            cjne r0,#3fh, wr_data1_
            mov a,#LINE2                      
            call wr_instr
            call delay5ms
            mov r0,#40h
wr_data2:call display_data
            cjne r0,#4fh, wr_data2
            ret

display_data:mov a,@r0
            call wr_data
            inc r0
            ret
           
delay5ms:mov r2,#13
             mov r1,#34;244         jmp delay1
delay1ms:mov r2,#3
              mov r1,#147
              jmp delay1
delays: mov r2,#39
            mov r1,#200;229
delay1:djnz r1,delay1
            djnz r2, delay1
            ret

WAIT:            mov r3,#36
            mov r2,#40
            mov r1,#176
waita:  djnz r1,waita
            djnz r2,waita
            djnz r3,waita
            ret
WAIT1:          mov r3,#36
            mov r2,#40
            mov r1,#176
waita11:djnz r1,waita11
            djnz r2,waita11
            djnz r3,waita11
            ret
           

END

1 comment:

  1. good morning sir, i love your project design and its well explanatory but please can u illustrate or show how to connect all the components together with the vero baord. maybe with an illustrative flow sketch diagram. thank for taking your time to do this

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