Friday, 21 October 2016

A Seminar Report On Computer Ethics



A SEMINAR REPORT

ON

COMPUTER ETHICS

PRESENTED BY

##### ###### ###########

CS/12/###

SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE

FACULTY OF SCIENCE

MADONNA UNIVERSITY, ELELE



IN PARTIALFULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (B.Sc.) IN COMPUTER SCIENCE



DECEMBER, 2015









CLARIFICATION

This is to certify that this Seminar research on “Computer Ethics” by Mordi Ernest Chukwuemeka (CS /12/149) has met conditions for the award of Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) degree in Computer Science, Madonna University Okija, Elele Campus. It is hereby approved for its contribution to knowledge.


Mordi .E. Chukwuemeka



(NAME OF STUDENT) SIGNATURE DATE




OMEGO OBINNA



(SUPERVISOR) SIGNATURE DATE




Adanma Celia Eberendu Ogu



(HEAD OF DEPARTMENT) SIGNATURE DATE











DEDICATION

I dedicate this report to the Almighty God who in His infinite mercy guided and provided for me throughout the duration of this research and also to my beloved parents for their love and support




ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

My very existence is due to the benevolence of the creator. All that I am, and all that I shall become is by His grace. Therefore my great and sincere appreciation goes to God Almighty. I am in particular grateful to my supervisor Mr. Omego Obinna despite his busy schedule; he was able to create time to supervise my work.

A big thanks to my H.O.D Mrs. Eberendu cillia ogu Adanma .for the wonderful work she is doing in the department, and to all other lecturers that have contributed to my knowledge in the department. And also my profound gratitude goes to my parents Mr. Mordi Okoh and Mrs. Veronica Mordi for their love, care and financial assistance.




TABLE OF CONTENT

DEDICATION……………………………………………………......……………………………3

ACKNOWLEDGMENT……………………………………….....……………………………….4

CHAPTER ONE...............................................................................................................................8

INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................8

1.1 OVERVIEW................................................................................................................................8

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM...................................................................................................8

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY.......................................................................................................10

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY...................................................................................................10

1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY..................................................................................................................10

1.6 LIMITATIONS OF STUDY......................................................................................................11

1.7 ORGANISATION OF WORK..................................................................................................11

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS........................................................................................................11

CHAPTER TWO.............................................................................................................................13

LITERATURE REVIEW.................................................................................................................13

2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND..............................................................................................13

2.2 RELATED RESEARCH...........................................................................................................14

CHAPTER THREE........................................................................................................................18

FINDINGS......................................................................................................................................18

3.1 CODE OF ETHICS...................................................................................................................18

3.1.1 ACM CODE OF ETHICS AND MODE OF CONDUCT......................................................18

3.1.2 COMPUTER ETHICS INSTITUTE (CEI)............................................................................19

3.1.3 IEEE CODE OF ETHICS.......................................................................................................20

3.1.4 NIGERIAN COMPUTER ASSOCIATION...........................................................................21

3.1.6 BRITISH COMPUTER SOCIETY..........................................................................................21

3.2 MERITS OF COMPUTER ETHICS..........................................................................................22

3.3 PROBLEMS/ DEMERITS OF COMPUTER OF ETHICS.......................................................23

3.3 GLOBALIZATION.....................................................................................................................24

CHAPTER FOUR.............................................................................................................................25

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION..................................................................................................25

4.1 SUMMARY.................................................................................................................................25

4.2 CONCLUTION...........................................................................................................................25

REFERENCES...................................................................... ...........................................................26






ABSTRACT

The increasing use of information and communication technologies (ICT) helps individuals to solve everyday problems. Even though ICT provide individuals with many advantages, they might also serve as grounds for several societal and ethical problems. Computer Ethics is a set of moral principle that regulate the use of computer and has become a major and important concern under light. This report gives a brief meaning and shows the problems and issues related with computer ethics as a whole, with a reference to privacy , computer crime, intellectual property, computer in the place of work, hacking and virus creation software piracy. This research also shows certain actions or activities of using computer that follows good code of ethics, It shows the historical background and related literatures. In this study, a brief overview of the various code of ethics gotten from different organizations like Institute of Electrical Electronics Engineer, Computer Ethics Institute, and Nigeria Computer Association, alongside the problems of these Code Of Ethics. This research is part of a growing study of Computer Ethics as rapidly evolving into a broader and even more important field.






CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 OVERVIEW

ETHICS is a set of moral principles that govern the behavior of a group or individual. Many brilliant minds have defined computer ethics over time in the 1980s and in the 1990s, Deborah Johnson, James moor, Terrell Ward Bynum and Donald Gotterbarn. But, COMPUTER ETHICS is a set of moral principles that regulate the use of computers. Also it can be said to be the efforts of professional philosophers to apply traditional ethical theories like utilitarianism, Kantianism, or virtue ethics to issues regarding the use of computer technology. Computer ethics” also has been used to refer to a kind of professional ethics in which computer professionals apply codes of ethics and standards of good practice within their profession. In addition, other more specific names, like “cyberethics” and “Internet ethics”, have been used to refer to aspects of computer ethics associated with the Internet. (James, 1984)



1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM


COMPUTERS IN THE WORKPLACE

Computers can pose a threat to jobs as people feel they may be replaced by them. However, the computer industry already has generated a wide variety of new jobs. When computers do not eliminate a job, they can radically alter it. In addition to job security concerns, another workplace concern is health and safety. It is a computer ethics issue to consider how computers impact health and job satisfaction when information technology is introduced into a workplace. 

COMPUTER CRIME

With the proliferation of computer viruses, spyware, phishing and fraud schemes, and hacking activity from every location in the world, computer crime and security are certainly topics of concern when discussing computer ethics. Besides outsiders, or hackers, many computer crimes, such as embezzlement or planting of logic bombs, are committed by trusted personnel who have authorization to use company computer systems. 

PRIVACY AND ANONYMITY

One of the earliest computer ethics topics to arouse public interest was privacy. The ease and efficiency with which computers and networks can be used to gather, store, search, compare, retrieve, and share personal information make computer technology especially threatening to anyone who wishes to keep personal information out of the public domain or out of the hands of those who are perceived as potential threats. The variety of privacy-related issues generated by computer technology has led to reexamination of the concept of privacy itself. 

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

One of the more controversial areas of computer ethics concerns the intellectual property rights connected with software ownership. Some people, like Richard Stallman, who started the Free Software Foundation, believe that software ownership should not be allowed at all. He claims that all information should be free, and all programs should be available for copying, studying, and modifying by anyone who wishes to do so. Others, such as Deborah Johnson, argue that software companies or programmers would not invest weeks and months of work and significant funds in the development of software if they could not get the investment back in the form of license fees or sales. 

HACKING, VIRUS CREATION SOFTWARE PIRACY

Hacking is an ambivalent term, most commonly perceived as being part of criminal activities. However, hacking has been used to describe the work of individuals who have been associated with the open-source movement. It simply means getting into someone else’s system without permission to find out information or do something illegal. Many of the developments in information technology have resulted from what has typically been considered as hacking activities “HACKTIVISM”. Manuel Castells considers hacker culture as the "INFORMATIONALISM" that incubates technological breakthrough, identifying hackers as the actors in the transition from an academically and institutionally constructed milieu of innovation to the emergence of self-organizing networks transcending organizational control. Crimes such as cracking, virus creation and software piracy which are related to hacking are of great importance.

Software piracy which is the unauthorized copying of software. Software piracy is morally wrong as it constitutes a violation of someone else’s rights. It has become more rampant this days even more than virus creation which is the creation of a program or part of a program which can make copies of itself and it is intended to prevent the computer from working normally and in worse cases corrupting most documents in system leading to loss of important documents. 


1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES

This work is to aid the learning of computer code of ethics, IEEE code of ethics and how to apply the ACM code of ethics. 

This work can be achieved through the following objectives:

· To help know and recognize which use of the computer is appropriate and inappropriate. 

· This research shows if certain activities with the computer follows a good code of ethics.

· Student should be able to recognize when others are doing wrong

· To help know which improper use of computer hurts.



1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

· This report should provide knowledge as against the use of computer resources in ways that are detrimental to normal operation

· Also it should make known the importance of respect for other users privacy and also not to share account with others

· It should be made known not to use computer for unauthorized endeavors.

· Study should make known that appropriate laws of copy right should be respected



1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY 

My research will give us an inside look, focusing solely on the meaning of computer ethics also it will also cover the historical background. The research will show some of the problems, also it will show some related literature and the different code of ethics of organizations like IEEE, ACMI etc.



1.6 LIMITATIONS OF STUDY

The limitation this research faced was that it was limited to documents from the internet. The materials needed for most of the research was not readily available, so documents and files were consulted on the internet only. 

1.7 ORGANISATION OF WORK

The chapter one of this research talks about the brief description of what computer ethics is, it also shows the statement of problems, objectives, significance of study, scope of study and also definition of some basic terms. The chapter two of this research shows the literature review which comprises of the historical background and related literature. The chapter three of this research will be digressing into some of the findings of this research. And finally my chapter four will be showing the summary, conclusion and reference (Atabong, 2013). 

1.8 GLOSSARY

1.8.1 CYBER ETHICS

Cyber ethics is a set of moral choices individuals make when using internet-capable technologies and digital media. It is said to be a philosophic study of ethics pertaining to computers, encompassing user behavior and what computers are programmed to do, and how this affects individuals and society.

1.8.2 KANTIANISM

This is the philosophy of Immanuel Kent, a German philosopher. The term Kantianism or Kantian is sometimes also used to describe contemporary positions in philosophy of mind and ethics. It follows the work of kant who believed that rational beings have dignity and should have respect.

1.8.3 UTILITARIANISM

It is a system of ethics based on the premise that something value may be measured by its usefulness.it is also the theory that action should be directed toward achieving the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people.


1.8.4 HACKTIVISM

This is the practice of promoting a political agenda by hacking, especially by defacing or disabling websites.

1.8.5 PLAGIARISM

This is the act of copying of another person’s ideas, text, or other creative work, and presenting it as one’s own, especially without permission. 






CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

The consideration of computer ethics fundamentally emerged with the birth of computers. There was concern right away that computers would be used inappropriately to the detriment of society, or that they would replace humans in many jobs, resulting in widespread job loss. To grasp fully the issues involved with computer ethics, it is important to consider the history. The following provides a brief overview of some significant events. Consideration of computer ethics is recognized to have begun with the work of MIT professor Norbert Wiener during World War II in the early 1940s, when he helped to develop an anti-aircraft cannon capable of shooting down fast warplanes. This work resulted in Wiener and his colleagues creating a new field of research that Wiener called cybernetics, the science of information feedback systems. The concepts of cybernetics, combined with the developing computer technologies, led Wiener to make some ethical conclusions about the technology called information and communication technology (ICT), in which Wiener predicted social and ethical consequences. (Wiener, 1950)published the human use of human beings, which described a comprehensive foundation that is still the basis for computer ethics research and analysis.In the mid-1960s, (Parker, 1968) , at the time with SRI International in Menlo Park, CA, began examining unethical and illegal uses of computers and documenting examples of computer crime and other unethical computerized activities. He published "Rules of Ethics in Information Processing" in communications of the ACM in 1968, and headed the development of the first Code of Professional Conduct for the Association for Computing Machinery, which was adopted by the ACM in 1973. During the late 1960s, Joseph Weizenbaum, a computer scientist at MIT in Boston, created a computer program that he called ELIZA that he scripted to provide a crude imitation of "a Rogerian psychotherapist engaged in an initial interview with a patient." People had strong reactions to his program, some psychiatrists fearing it showed that computers would perform automated psychotherapy. (Wiezenbaum, 1976)wrote computer power and human reasoning in 1976, in which he expressed his concerns about the growing tendency to see humans as mere machines. His book, MIT courses, and many speeches inspired many computer ethics thoughts and projects. 

Walter Maner is credited with coining the phrase "computer ethics" in the mid-1970s when discussing the ethical problems and issues created by computer technology, and taught a course son the subject at Old Dominion University. From the late 1970s into the mid-1980s, Maner's work created much interest in university-level computer ethics courses. (Maner, 1978) published the, starter kit computer ethics, which contained curriculum materials and advice for developing computer ethics courses. Many university courses were put in place because of Maner's work. 

Computer ethics focuses on human endeavors influenced or directed by use of computer technologies . Computers have a commonplace influence on decision-making processes assumed by most individuals. Sending an e-mail, writing a program script, creating a database, generating graphics, designing software, processing information and buying software are such behaviors carrying ethical problems within their natures. Computer technology is a rapidly developing field which makes it difficult to predict what is coming next. However, it is clear that the information society and individuals within this society will go on confronting radical technological and societal developments leading them to generate new patterns of behavior to accommodate these developments (NamluOdabasi, 2007). In this regard, while shaping these behavior generation processes, the notion of computer ethics should be emphasized as well as the notion of professional ethics (Kilicer& Odabasi,2006). In addition, the concept of computer ethics should not be examined within the framework of ICT-related professional ethics. Rather, it should be examined within the framework of

Personal ethics to be followed by all individuals of the information society (Bowyer, 1996; Namlu&Odabasi, 2007).

2.2 RELATED RESEARCH

This section discusses research findings on computer ethics. This discussion is followed by the influence of specific background variables on perceptions related to computer ethics. Particularly, the influence of age, gender, computer experience and socioeconomic status is examined, and the gap in the computer ethics literature is illustrate. Multifarious research studies on computer ethics have been conducted in Turkish higher education institutions incomparison to other indicators of ICTs. Uysal (2006) administered the Unethical Computer Using Behavior

Scale (UECUBS) developed by Namlu and Odabasi (2007) to 559 pre-service teachers enrolled in a Turkish\education faculty. Findings revealed that pre-service teachers described their computer and Internet usingbehaviors as ethical. It was observed that participants’ perceptions regarding intellectual property and net integrity were weaker in comparison to other constructs. It was revealed that unethical computer using behaviors varied according to gender and program of study. More specifically, women reported to be more ethical in terms of all constructs of the scale. In addition, teacher trainees in the department of computer education and instructional technologies had lower scores in terms of the items addressing information integrity.Akbulut, Uysal, Odabasi and Kuzu (2008a) used the dataset of Uysal (2006) to investigate whether gender,program of study and PC experience had an impact on ethical judgments of undergraduate students regarding ICTs findings (Kazu, 2006). Findings did not reveal any significant differences among different programs of study and between highand low experienced PC users. As mentioned above, the significant difference between males and females remained. Interestingly, findings revealed an interaction between gender and program of study indicating that thedifference between males and females did not follow a similar pattern across different programs of study. Morespecifically, females’ judgments regarding computer ethics were found to be consistent across differentprograms of study while males’ judgments varied according to the field of study.Some studies focused on the triggering role of Internet on academic misconduct whose theoretical background inTurkey was established by Birinci and Odabasi (2006). Following the idea that Internet served as a ground foracademic misdemeanors, Akbulut et al. (2008) investigated the extent of involvement of Turkish universitystudents in academic dishonesty practices facilitated through Internet. A measurement tool named Internet-Triggered Academic Dishonesty Scale (ITADS) was developed through the help of guidelines proposed by

Anadolu University Scientific Ethics Committee (BEK, 2003) and the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK, 2006). After administering the scale to 349 pre-service teachers in a relatively populated Turkish state university, researchers conducted two factor analyses. The former led to the constructs constituting common types of e-dishonesty which were named as fraudulence, plagiarism, falsification, delinquency and unauthorized help. The second analysis revealed individual and contextual factors triggering dishonestywhich were named as individual factors, institutional policies and peer pressure.

As one of the preliminary research regarding computer ethics in Turkey, ├çevik and Kuzu (2006) investigated problems experienced in K-12 computer laboratories regarding computer security along with solutions proposed by computer teachers. The most cited computer security problems were unauthorized access to others’ personal files (92%), and removing somebody else’s files from a shared computer (82%). Find ngs suggested that K-12 students were not informed sufficiently about ethical issues regarding ICTs. Types of unethical computer using habits were also investigated in business settings. For instance, Mollavelio─člu (2003) investigated the ethical use of information technologies in small- and mid-size enterprises along with the perspectives of managers and vice managersregarding computer ethics. Findings revealed that more than half of the enterprises (53.3%) used unlicensed software. Forty percent of the managers thought that their employers had little working knowledge on computer ethics. The majority reported to be exposed to computer crimes (86.7%). Most managers (76%) thought that controlling and checking the contents of employers’ e-mails was inconvenient. In addition, they considered employers’ chatting (72 %) and surfing adult websites (93%) quite inconvenient even if employers did not hamper the work. Most enterprises did not have any formal precautions regarding computer ethics. Finally, a relationship between education level and the degree of tolerating unethical behaviors could not be found. Some well-established studies in the field primarily focused on computer-related fraudulence. For instance, (Friedmann, 1997) conducted a study with 212 undergraduate students to investigate intellectual property and privacy issues. Software fraud was examined under three headings: Fraud for personal use, for friends’ use and

for profit. In addition, privacy construct was examined under three headings namely accessing computer files without reading, accessing files with the aim of reading the contents, and accessing files with the aim of altering the contents. Findings revealed that undergraduate students’ perceptions regarding computer related fraudulences was different from their perceptions regarding the same fraudulences in other areas. More specifically, they were more careful about privacy issues when the files were not on computer. However, in terms of accessing computer files, the level of consciousness was lower. It was suggested that since accessing computer files was easier than other types of fraudulences, since the guilty was not aware of the harmful results of their actions, and since the mistreated was not aware of the fraudulences, such behaviors were more common.Computer users’ perceptions regarding ethics have been well investigated through focusing on ethical dilemmas.

(Bergem, 1993) conducted interviews with 65 pre-service teachers regarding their opinions on professional ethics through using ethical dilemmas. Findings revealed that participants’ social sensitivity and moral judgment skills had an effect on their analyses of ethical dilemmas. After training was given to participants, it was revealed that participants’ judgments regarding ethical dilemmas were more constructive. It was suggested that formal education regarding ethical dilemmas had an influence on increasing participants’ theoretical and practical knowledge and helping them to solve ethical dilemmas in a more constructive way. Perceptions of users have also been investigated with regard to differences among professionals from different backgrounds. (parker, 1990)Conducted a study in Cape Town University to investigate differences between ethical perceptions of information system students and practitioners. It was revealed that students had different points of view regarding computer ethics in comparison to practitioners actively working in the field. More specifically, students were more tolerant of unethical behaviors in comparison to practitioners.







CHAPTER 3

FINDINGS

3.1 CODE OF ETHICS

These are some of the ethical values some organizations implore to make activities of every member of the organization. Also is the Commitment to ethical professional conduct which is expected of every member of the organization as well as the public at large. Here are some of the organizations and their their code of ethics.

ACM CODE OF ETHICS AND MODE OF CONDUCT

The ACM code of ethics was adopted by the ACM council in 16th October 1992. Under this code of ethics Commitment to ethical professional conduct is expected of every member (voting members, associate members, and student members) of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM).This Code, consisting of 24 imperatives formulated as statements of personal responsibility, identifies the elements of such a commitment. It contains many, but not all, issues professionals are likely to face. These imperatives are divided into four but I will be going into only two of them which are: (ACM council, 1992)

GENERAL MORAL IMPERATIVE, which include;

· Contribute to society and human well-being.

· Avoid ham to others.

· Be honest and trustworthy.

· Be fair and take action not to discriminate.

· Honor property rights including copyrights and patent.

· Give proper credit for intellectual property.

· Respect the privacy of others.




MORE SPECIFIC PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES, which includes;

· Strive to achieve the highest quality, effectiveness and dignity in both the process and products of professional work.

· Acquire and maintain professional competence

· Know and respect existing laws pertaining to professional work.

· Accept and provide appropriate professional review.

· Give comprehensive and thorough evaluations of computer systems and their impacts, including analysis of possible risks.

· Honor contracts, agreements, and assigned responsibilities.

· Improve public understanding of computing and its consequences.

· Access computing and communication resources only when authorized to do so.



COMPUTER ETHICS INSTITUTE (CEI).

In 1991 the Computer Ethics Institute held its first National Computer Ethics Conference in Washington, D.C. The Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics were first presented in (Barquin, 1992) paper prepared for the conference, "In Pursuit of a 'Ten Commandments' for Computer Ethics." The Computer Ethics Institute published them as follows in 1992: 

· Thou Shalt Not Use a Computer to Harm Other People. 

· Thou Shalt Not Interfere with Other People's Computer Work. 

· Thou Shalt Not Snoop around in Other People's Computer Files. 

· Thou Shalt Not Use a Computer to Steal. 

· Thou Shalt Not Use a Computer to Bear False Witness. 

· Thou Shalt Not Copy or Use Proprietary Software for Which You Have Not Paid. 

· Thou Shalt Not Use Other People's Computer Resources without Authorization or Proper Compensation. 

· Thou Shalt Not Appropriate Other People's Intellectual Output. 

· Thou Shalt Think about the Social Consequences of the Program You Are Writing or the System You Are Designing. 

· Thou Shalt Always Use a Computer in Ways That Insure Consideration and Respect for =Your Fellow Humans.


INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS (IEEE) 

The IEEE code of ethics was adopted in the year 1990, and some of this code include; (IEEE, 1990)

· Accept responsibilities in making decisions consistent with safety, health, and welfare of the public.

· Avoid real or perceived conflicts of interest

· Be honest and realistic in stating claims or estimates

· Reject bribery in all forms

· Improve understanding of technology, it’s application, and potential consequences

· Maintain and improve our technical competence and undertake technological tasks for others only if qualified

· Seek, accept, and offer honest criticism of technical work

· Acknowledge and correct errors

· Cerdit properly the contributors of others

· Treat all persons fairly regardless of race, religion, gender, disability, age or national origin

· Avoid injuring others, their property, reputation, or employment by false or malicious action

· Assist colleagues and co-workers in their professional development and to support them in following the code of ethics


3.1.4 NIGERIAN COMPUTER ASSOCIATION

The Profession of that use computerized machinery and other techniques related thereto is a learned one, of which members are expected to exhibit the highest standards of competence, honesty and integrity. (Babachir, 2015) The tremendous impact of the use of computational machinery and techniques related thereto on the quality of life is now common knowledge, to the extent that it has become difficult to imagine a contemporary would without these means. It is imperative, therefore, that services provided by members of the Profession be carried out under a criterion of excellence in professional behavior requiring the adherence to the highest standards of ethical conduct, and that they be dedicated to the safety, health and well-being of the public. In recognition of this state of affairs, and having being registered and licensed to practice the Profession, in the country, I acknowledged that I have an obligation to:

· The public, therefore I shall have utmost regard for its safety, health, and well-being 

· My employer or client whose trust I hold, therefore, I shall serve him faithfully and loyally, endeavoring to discharge this obligation to the best of my ability, guarding his interest and advising him wisely and honestly. 

· Fellow members of the Profession, therefore I shall uphold the ideals of the Profession cooperating with fellow members and treating them with honesty and respect at all times. 

· The Profession, therefore I shall acquire, maintain and improve professional competence, promote the advancement of Computer Science as well as the understanding, effective and efficacious deployment of computational machinery, computerized machinery and techniques related thereto, and enhance the prestige of the Profession. 

· My country, therefore, in my personal, business and social contacts, I shall at all times uphold my nation, respect and honor the chosen way of life of fellow citizens, be law abiding, transparently honest, of unquestionable integrity, and utmost responsibility and reliability. 

3.1.6 BRITISH COMPUTER SOCIETY

The British code of conduct consists of several codes and they are divided under the basic sub headings; (Parker, 1968)

3.1.6.1 PUBLIC INTEREST

· Regard for the public health, safety, en-ironmen.

· Regard legitimate rights of third parties.

· Have knowledge of, comply with relevant legislation, regulations, standards

· No discrimination

· No active or passive bribery



3.1.6.2 DUTY TO RELEVANT AUTHORITY

· Apply due care and diligence. If over-ruled, indicate likely risks

· Avoid conflicts of interest

· Do not disclose confidential information(exceptions)

· Do not withhold information on the per-formance of products ...


3.1.6.3 DUTY TO THE PROFESSION

· Uphold the reputation of the BCS

· Act with integrity

· Consider possible consequences of statements on others, make public statements only if properly qualified

· Notify BCS if convicted of a crime, be-coming bankrupt


3.1.6.4 PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE AND INTEGRITY

· Upgrade your professional know skill

· Do not claim competence that you do not possess. Work only within your professional competence

· Observe relevant clauses from the BCS Code of Good Practice & other standards

· Accept professional responsibility


3.2 MERITS OF COMPUTER ETHICS

· provide knowledge as against the use of computer resources in ways that are detrimental to normal operation

· It make known the importance of respect for other users privacy and also not to share account with others

· It helps not to use computer for unauthorized endeavors.

· Study helps to know the appropriate laws of copy right should be respected


3.3PROBLEMS/ DEMERITS OF COMPUTER OF ETHICS

· A legal system is not complete and correct and guide to moral behavior.

· Codes of ethics are mostly voluntary.

· May encounter situation for which the code makes no explicit recommendations.

· Goodness cannot be defined through a list of dos and don’ts.

· You must use your internal sense of ethics.


3.3 GLOBALIZATION

Computer ethics today is rapidly evolving into a broader and even more important field, which might reasonably be called "global information ethics". (Parker, 1968) Global networks like the Internet and especially the world-wide-web are connecting people all over the earth. As KrystynaGorniak-Kocikowska perceptively notes in her paper, "The Computer Revolution and the Problem of Global Ethics" , for the first time in history, efforts to develop mutually agreed standards of conduct, and efforts to advance and defend human values, are being made in a truly global context. So, for the first time in the history of the earth, ethics and values will be debated and transformed in a context that is not limited to a particular geographic region, or constrained by a specific religion or culture. This may very well be one of the most important social developments in history. Consider just a few of the global issues: 


GLOBAL LAWS

If computer users in the United States, for example, wish to protect their freedom of speech on the internet, whose laws apply? Nearly two hundred countries are already interconnected by the internet, so the United States Constitution (with its First Amendment protection for freedom of speech) is just a "local law" on the internet -- it does not apply to the rest of the world. How can issues like freedom of speech, control of "pornography", protection of intellectual property, invasions of privacy, and many others to be governed by law when so many countries are involved? If a citizen in a European country, for example, has internet dealings with someone in a far-away land, and the government of that land considers those dealings to be illegal, can the European be tried by the courts in the far-away country?

GLOBAL CYBER BUSINESS

The world is very close to having technology that can provide electronic privacy and security on the internet sufficient to safely conduct international business transactions. Once this technology is in place, there will be a rapid expansion of global "cyber business". Nations with a technological infrastructure already in place will enjoy rapid economic growth, while the rest of the world lags behind. What will be the political and economic fallout from rapid growth of global cyberbusiness? Will accepted business practices in one part of the world be perceived as "cheating" or "fraud" in other parts of the world? Will a few wealthy nations widen the already big gap between rich and poor? Will political and even military confrontations emerge? 

GLOBAL EDUCATION

If inexpensive access to the global information net is provided to rich and poor alike -- to poverty-stricken people in ghettos, to poor nations in the "third world", etc. for the first time in history, nearly everyone on earth will have access to daily news from a free press; to texts, documents and art works from great libraries and museums of the world; to political, religious and social practices of peoples everywhere. What will be the impact of this sudden and profound "global education" upon political dictatorships, isolated communities, coherent cultures, religious practices, etc.? As great universities of the world begin to offer degrees and knowledge modules via the internet, will "lesser" universities be damaged or even forced out of business? 

INFORMATION RICH AND INFORMATION POOR

The gap between rich and poor nations, and even between rich and poor citizens in industrialized countries, is already disturbingly wide. As educational opportunities, business and employment opportunities, medical services and many other necessities of life move more and more into cyberspace, will gaps between the rich and the poor become even worse?









CHAPTER FOUR

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

4.1 SUMMARY

This report gives a brief meaning and shows the problems and issues related with computer ethics as a whole. This research also states the objectives and significance of the research. Going down it shows the historical background and related literatures. During the course of this research some finding were made and these were the code of ethics gotten from different organizations with the problems of code of ethics. Also this report has shown that computer ethics is growing into a broader and even more important field.

4.2 CONCLUSION

In conclusion, this research on computer ethics was particularly successful and brought a comprehensive insight on the different problems of computer ethics, also the different code of ethics and the problems of code of ethics. In addition, this work explained the concept of computer ethics through resorting to unethical computer using behaviors such as using unlicensed software, copying files or programs without authorization, showing disrespect to people’s work, accessing secret or personal information of individuals, and unauthorized reading or download of others’ files and e-mails, hacking and creation of viruses.






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