Sunday, 22 October 2017

Free Seminar Report On Lithium – Air Battery.

Free Seminar Report On Lithium – Air Battery.
Free Seminar Report On Lithium – Air Battery.

LITHIUM –AIR BATTERY
A
SEMINAR PRESENTED
BY

B**** P********* H.
(CS/12/***)

SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE
FACULTY OF SCIENCES
MADONNA UNIVERSITY ELELE CAMPUS
RIVER STATE, NIGERIA

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (B.Sc) DEGREE IN
COMPUTER SCIENCE

SUPERVISOR:
MRS N**** E******


DECEMBER, 2015








DEDICATION

This seminar report is dedicated to God Almighty.


DECLARATION

This is to declare that B**** P********* H., with registration number CS/12/*** in the department of computer science carried out a research on the topic: LITHUIM-AIR BATTERY and it has been submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of bachelor in science (B.Sc.), in the department of computer science.

B**** P********* H.     ………….………….....…         …………......…………
(Student’s name)                Signature                               Date

MRS N**** E******           ………….………….....…               …………......…………
(Supervisor)                     Signature                         Date

MRS. A***** C**** E********** …......……………             …………......….
      (A/C Head of Department)              Signature                Date


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

 This report is indebted to a vast number of people who helped in one way or the other with gratitude to my maker, the Almighty God; I would also like to express my deepest gratitude to my lecturer and Supervisor Mrs Nitah Eleanor for her advice and support in various ways. This work would have been a daunting task without her help. I would like to thank the faculty, staff of computer science department, Madonna University for helping me with my course work. My sincere thanks go to my parents Mr and Mrs Bekee for the moral advice and financial support in my academic pursuit. I also appreciate my friends, colleagues and many others too numerous to mention. God bless you all.


TABLE OF CONTENT
Title     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           i
Dedication      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           ii
Certification    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iii
Acknowledgement      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iv
Table of content          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           v
Abstract          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           vii
CHAPTER 1
Introduction    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           1
1.1  Background of the study  -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           1
1.2  Problem statement -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           1
1.3  Aims and objectives of study       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           2
1.4  Significance of study        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           2
1.5  Scope of study      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           2
1.6  Limitation -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           2
1.7  Glossary    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           2
1.8  Organization of the chapters         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           3
CHAPTER 2
Literature Review       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           4
2.1 Historical background       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           4
2.2 Related literature         -    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           4
2.2.1 Battery 500 projects       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           5
CHAPTER 3
Findings     -    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           6
3.1 Innovation by reconsideration     -            -           -           -           -           -           -           6
  3.2 Advantages of lithium-air battery           -           -           -           -           -           -           6
3.3 Disadvantages of lithium-air battery        -           -           -           -           -           -           6
3.3 Companies working on lithium-air battery           -           -           -           -           -           7
3.4 Architecture          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           7
3.5 How lithium-air battery works      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           7
3.6 Application areas -            -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           8
3.7 Issues that are broadly applicable to li/air systems, or only nonaqueous systems 8
CHAPTER 4
Conclusion      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           9
4.1 Summary   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           9
4.2 Recommendation  -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           9
REFERENCES          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           10





ABSTRACT
Lithium air battery is a fascinating energy storage system. The effective exploitation of air as a battery electrode has been the long-time dream of the battery community. In the particular case of lithium air system, energy levels approaching that of gasoline have been suggested or accepted. It is then not surprising that, in the course of   the last decade, great attention has devoted to this battery by various top academic and industrial laboratories worldwide. The intense investigation, however, has soon highlighted a series of issues that prevent a rapid development of the lithium air (li/air) electrochemical system. Although several breakthroughs have been achieved recently, the question on whether this battery will have effective economic and societal impact is not yet certain.
    

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Lithium-air batteries are an exciting research frontier because they could store far more energy than current lithium ion batteries. The concept of lithium-air was borrowed from zinc-air and the fuel cell in that they breathe air. The battery uses catalytic air cathode that supplies oxygen, an electrolyte and a lithium anode. Scientists anticipate an energy storage potential that is 5-10 times larger than that of lithium ion but they guess that it will take one to two decades before the technology can be commercialized. Depending on materials used, lithium -air will produce voltages in between 1.7 and 3.2v/cell. IBM, the University of California and others are developing the technology. The theoretical specific energy of lithium-air is 13kwh/kg; aluminum-air has similar qualities, with an 8kwh/kg theoretical specific energy.

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
a.       The main problem of lithium-air battery is that it experiences the sudden death syndrome. The battery requires lithium and oxygen to operate but these components form lithium peroxide films that produce a barrier and prevent electron movement. This results in a sudden reduction in the battery’s storage capacity.
b.      Air purity is also said to be one of the challenges as the air we breathe in our cities is not clean enough for lithium-air (Battery, 2015)and also the choice of a stable electrolyte is one of the challenges in lithium–air research and development. Require significant improvement in electrode and electrolyte materials, cell design and fundamental understanding to solve the poor reversibility and reliability, low power and high cost problems.
c.       In 2013, the battery had a series of challenges ranging from the anode, cathode, to the stability.
In the case of the anode, the challenge was preventing it from reacting with the electrolyte.
Cathode : this happens to be the source of the potential advantage the battery has but it had the problem of incomplete discharge due to blockage of the porous carbon cathode with discharge products  e.g. lithium peroxide.

1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
 The objective of this research is focused on knowing what this lithium air battery is, how it works, what stage it presently is regarding its development, what has limited it to the laboratory.
The aim of this research is to write a research paper that will educate the masses on the of the work in progress as regards the development of lithium air battery which will be a replacement for lithium-ion battery when fully developed.
 
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

 A breakthrough in Li-air battery technology would significantly increase the possibility of extending the electric range of these vehicles,

1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY

This research work is confined within the topic of lithium-air battery using the non-aqueous lithium-air battery   as a case study which identifies how it works, history associated with the research work, area of application, limitations  etc.

1.6 LIMITATION

This study is limited to the following constraints like
1.     Financial Constraint, due to limited finance, the problem becomes more complex to obtain.
Research Constraint, there were limited resources to the topic

1.7   GLOSSARY

1.      Battery: A battery is a device consisting of one or more cells that can produce a direct current by converting chemical energy to electrical energy.
2.      Lithium-air battery: Is a metal air battery chemistry that uses oxidation of lithium at the anode and reduction of oxygen at the cathode to induce a current flow.
3.      Anode: One of the electrodes (objects that electricity moves through) in a piece of electrical equipment; the negative electrode in a battery and the positive electrode in an electrolytic cell
4.      Cathode: One of the electrodes (object that electricity moves through) in a piece of electrical equipment; the positive electrode in a battery and the negative electrode in an electrolytic cell
5.      Lithium peroxide: It is the inorganic compound with the formula Li2O2. It is a white, nonhygroscopic solid.

1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE CHAPTERS

This research work has been divided into 4 chapters
Chapter 1: An introductory page which consists of the historical background, the problem statement, the aims and objectives of the research being carried out, the significance of the research, the scope of study, alongside the limitations, and glossary.
Chapter 2: Literature review is a quick summary on the works of other researchers and a little comment on work undone.
Chapter 3 is all about the things I found out and understood from the research carried out.
Chapter 4 is the conclusion which comprises of the summary and recommendation.





CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Lithium-air battery or li-air is a metal air battery chemistry that uses oxidation of lithium at the anode and reduction of oxygen at the cathode to induce a current flow.
Lithium batteries have received attention since 1970s. the first commercial lithium cells emerged in the mid 1990s,when kuzhikalial .M. Abraham and his co-workers demostrated the first non-aqueous lithium-air battery with the use of lithium negative electrode (anode), porous carbon positive electrodes (cathode), and a gel polymer electrolyte membrane that served as both the seperator and ion-transporting medium. It is an all-solid-state battery; it recaptured scientific interest in the late 2000s due to advances in materials technology and an increasing demand for renewable energy sources

2.2 RELATED LITERATURE

An investigation carried out on the distribution of insoluble lithium precipitates in the separator region of non-aqueous Li-air batteries, using micro focused synchrotron X-ray diffraction (μ-XRD).They reported that, unexpectedly, a significantly higher concentration of precipitates was found in the separator region than in the cathode. The μ-XRD results showed that these precipitates are mainly crystallized Li2CO3, which grew on the separator fiber surface. Under severe electrolyte decomposition, such precipitate formation could lead to the blockage of the pores in the middle layer of the separator, thereby constricting the electrolyte-mediated ion transport. Moreover, these precipitates in the separator are electrochemically non-decomposable, since the separator is insulated from the electrochemical reactions, resulting in higher observed accumulation at the separator.
According to researchers from (Kaist, 2013) the lithium air batteries are hindered by some problems surrounding the high-energy free radicals generated at their cathodes and they are also working to extend the life time of the lithium-air battery.
According to (R.E Williford, 2013)


2.2.1 BATTERY 500 PROJECTS

According to researchers at IBM, the electric cars of today can typically travel for only 100 miles on current battery technology (lithium-ion battery). Lithium-ion battery stands little or no chance of being light enough to travel 500 miles on a single charge and cheap enough to be practical for a typical family car which is creating a significant barrier to the adoption of electric vehicle. IBM having this in view started the battery 500 project in 2009 to develop a new type of lithium-air battery technology that is expected to improve energy density tenfold, thereby increasing  the amount of energy these batteries can generate and store which presently IBM researchers have successfully demonstrated the fundamental chemistry of the charge-and-discharge process of lithium-air battery (IBM)
According to some researchers at Yale and MIT, the way to alleviate two of the batteries’ biggest problems have been found, that is their efficiency and inability to be recharged many times. They developed a nanostructure membrane that reduces the needed energy to recharge the battery. They also said the battery uses pure oxygen as such would require the development of a system that works in air to be able to realize its theoretical potential (Bulls, 2015).
(Kaushal, 2011)He saw the future of lithium-air batteries in continued development of the components such as the air cathode, anode, electrolyte and the separator, and also trying to increase the number of charge and discharge cycles of the battery.




CHAPTER 3
FINDINGS

In the course of this research, I was able to find out some things about lithium-air battery

3.1 INNOVATION BY RECONSIDERATION

A team of engineers at the UK’s university of Cambridge have thought and found a new way of resolving one of the technology’s problems. They adjusted the general design of the lithium-air battery by using a highly porous, spongy carbon electrode made from grapheme. The new design includes the use of lithium iodide as a stabilizing additive. (Green, 2015). Which they say helps to reduce unwanted chemical reactions that cause cells in the battery to die and improve battery longevity.

Diagram of Graphene electrode
Diagram of Graphene electrode

                               
  3.2 ADVANTAGES OF LITHIUM-AIR BATTERY

Ø  The capacity of lithium-air battery is ten times more than lithium-ion batteries
Ø  Less weight than lithium-ion due to the elimination of the metal-oxide used in lithium-ion batteries
Ø  Less cost
Ø  It is environment-friendly.

 3.3 DISADVANTAGES OF LITHIUM-AIR BATTERY

Ø  Dependent on environmental conditions:
a. Drying out limits shelf life once opened to air
b. Electrolyte flooding limits power output
Ø  Limited power density
Ø  Limited operating temperature range

3.3 COMPANIES WORKING ON LITHIUM-AIR BATTERY

·         IBM
·         POLYPUS BATTERY,CALIFONIA
·         ST. ANDREWS UNIVERSITY

3.4 ARCHITECTURE
Lithium-Air Battery Architecture Fig 2 (Battery, 2015)
Fig 2 (Battery, 2015)


3.5 HOW LITHIUM-AIR BATTERY WORKS

A lithium-air cell creates voltage from the oxygen molecules available (O2) at the positive electrode. Oxygen reacts with the positively charged lithium-ions to form lithium peroxide (Li2O2) and generate electric energy (cordis, 2015)

How Lithium-Air Battery Works Fig 3 (Hoster, 2015)
Fig 3 (Hoster, 2015)


3.6 APPLICATION AREAS

The lithium-air battery can be applied in our portable storage devices but its main application driving interest is transportation, where specific energy and energy density are most important, although applications in portable electronics and grid energy storage are also of interest. Of particular interest in the context of transportation is the fact that, with the specific energy and energy density of today’s automotive Li-ion cells, one’s driving range is limited to about 70 miles for a 200 kg pack, (kojic, 2011)


3.7 ISSUES THAT ARE BROADLY APPLICABLE TO LI/AIR SYSTEMS, OR ONLY

NONAQUEOUS SYSTEMS:

Ø  Establishing truly reversible electrochemical reactions.
Ø  Obtaining high capacity in the positive electrode.
Ø  Accommodating significant volume changes.
Ø  Stabilizing the Lithium metal negative electrode.
Ø  Achieving adequate power capability and efficiency.
Ø  Supplying contaminant-free Oxygen to the system.



CHAPTER 4
 CONCLUSION
4.1 SUMMARY

The non-aqueous lithium-air batteries represent a class of potentially ultrahigh energy density power sources useful for military and civilian applications. When fully developed could exhibit practical specific energies of 1000-3000 Wh/kg. It is rechargeable as such efforts should be made to fully develop them. It has been predicted that Li/air batteries will primarily remain a research topic for the next several years. However, if the fundamental challenges can be met, the lithium air (Li/air) battery has the potential to significantly surpass the energy storage capability of today’s Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries.

4.2 RECOMMENDATION

A lot of researches have been going on for decades now by researchers both from the battery companies and researchers from higher institution as regards developing the battery of the future (lithium-air) which has been said to be environment friendly and more efficient than the lithium-ion. I recommend relentless effort both from the researchers and the scientists in overcoming the challenges of the lithium-air battery which includes the cathode can be improved as an asymmetric structure in which the porosity is not uniform distribution.



 


REFERENCES

Battery, u. (2015, 04 24). Powering BioMedial Devices. Retrieved November 2 , 2015, from experimental rechargeable batteries: www.energywithou-carbon.org/batteries
Bulls, k. (2015, january 27). Advance doubles the longevity of high-energy electric car batteries. Retrieved august 15, 2015, from MIT Technology Review: http//:www.technologyreview.com
cordis. (2015, 10 7). Doubling the lifetime of lithium-air batteries . Retrieved 11 23, 2015, from physorg: http://phys.org/news/2015-10-lifetime-lithium-air-batteries.html
Green, E. (2015, 11, 2). lithium-air batteries: the key to replacing the internal combustion engine? Retrieved 11 27, 2015, from http://engineering.com
Hoster, H. (2015, 11 5). lithium air: a battery breakthrough explained. Retrieved 11 25, 2015, from the register: http://m.theregister.co.uk/
IBM. (n.d.). IBM-The Battery 500 project-United States. Retrieved 11 28, 2015, from IBM: HTTP://M.IBM.COM/SMARTERPLANET/US/ENSMART_GRID/ARTICLE/BATTERY500.HTML
K. M. Abraham and Z. Jiang, J. (1996). brief history on lithium-air battery. brief history on lithium-air battery , 143,1.
Kaist, c. (2013, 04 2). charged electric vehicles magazine. Retrieved 08 25, 2015, from KAIST Discovers method to extend lithium-air battery life: http://chargedevs.com/news
Kaushal, P. (2011, march 19). batteries that charges on air. Retrieved august 10, 2015, from seminar projects: http//:seminarprojects.org/t-batteries-that-charges-on-air
kojic, J. C. (2011). journal of the electrochemical society. critical review lithium-air battery , 159.
R.E Williford, J.-G. Z. (2013, 3 25). journal of power sources. air electrode design for sustained high power operation of lithium-air batteries .

zhang, j. (2010). Development of Li-Air Batteries. Development of Li-Air Batteries .


Searches related to Lithium – Air Battery.

>>> lithium air battery companies
>>> lithium air battery for sale
>>> lithium air battery tesla
>>> lithium air vs lithium ion
>>> lithium air battery research
>>> lithium air battery cost
>>> lithium oxygen battery tesla
>>> how does lithium air battery work


0 comments:

Post a Comment